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. 1950 4 (in le Journal Asiatique (4jjjm^M 
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Sj i"i t (^^ 1 884 4 i i ii aj i"i i i La_L> ; ~ 1 1 too U ^- t i j ju j_££ *_Uaj_i ij_j!j^>J! 
.Le Bulletin de la Correspondance Africaine (4_l2j^3^I o}Lj/!j_U) 
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. L^ia (j-oliJI jJjJ.1 ^ 1893 3-o.u L^jji 

CjLu£_U ( _ ;r 3 4-uj_«JI ' " ' I La a Laic-a-L! Luuj^3 A.Cour jji '"■ i aC jl *-i^aj (<u 

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. 1883 4_u-u jj!j^>J! (^^ i>j_<luj ijj-uLs 
4j^sL>J! cjLjSUI (_jjl>.J ■•'IUjU^.I Lj/j^a G.Salmon (jjlLj/ /tj^^j- j-^jj 
Archives Marocaines (3_<_<i£!j_U v2jLLij^>J,l) 5i^a ^ iS^tiLa 3_LjJ-o ^ 

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1917 (jj-Li-u ^ La Revue du Monde Musulman ( Cr a>Luu'^ I <J UJ I) SJL^a ^ 

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j 191 I cjIj '< i. ill ^ La Revue Africaine (2 j ^ a VI 3_L»Jtl) ^^a La>j_ijj 

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(j-o J^«U I J-A ( _ ;r a (jjijjjilil (JJjLj Q5-ij«" i ii U jLt^a j Mir «_<-uLiJ! iJJ-2J> (jr^J 
(jl_Lj-3 4_<j/jJ_a (j-aj '^<j i niiiLi pfl i mitt (JjjjSLj (jjJJl (jl-J (j-° : ^ J '-^- Sjx. 
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(jVLc. ^tj-La-il : I i^iji Ji^Jtil t_j£ 4_ujjlII ( _ 3 jj/ji '>t?^ O^ 1 -^' j<j ml <j-°J 
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Ji-lj lini-w VjjJSj Luj/!j L>-ljUJ Lhhf^ ^-L?>J 5^j>-j^JI oJUfc i.-unlq i 1708 

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.1871 3_u-u (^Jl 1833 3_u-u jjj> Ar mand-(jLajl Ali\ 

5 '/in ^1 1871 3 in. ,jji Ch.F. Defremery (_gj_<u^3jj lj m'tlj-a JjL" -I 

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. 1926 3_u-u ^Jl 1909 3J^ ^ P.Casanova La^Jljl^ J^j -4 

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i^—JjJtJl tljjLUu ^j^uua Sell a * 1 % ***< i n a ^—11 ^-j-o^SJl I JLA J 1 1 nt LaJUX.J -6 

. 1950 3-L^u (jJI 1946 3_L^, ^ 
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-Jj-fl-ll (^Jl J i i nlj ((^a^L^/VI x_*l5c^JJ (j-"J^) 1902 3_uj/ lilOa-l JU2j 

jj j uA,\ ^_ij <"iiiU 4_ii <uiii- jtu . 1926 3 ii ii ( _ ; ^o. A.Le Gatelier 4_i_JjLc.^J 
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. 1903 3 i in (j-ujjl-i ^ sQcLJa jLc.1 (<u 
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/OJ^e-t-a 3-Aj '( d L3»l L^ajt I j-") '. 4-qjre-t-a 4 1837 4 i 1 n i^J-u-ujLo lJlIj a J -2 

1 j 1 11 ij^-Lujx. L_o^_aLs : 1 8604 i 1 n i(j_a_jju ^—^ t^.\ 1 i^-l^-ijIS j-£ujj -3 

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. 4J! jllo ^^ Sj_ui d jn itl I j> (jLSj i43Laj jjlj jIi!j_>JI ^^ 1887 4_Llu j-i-«-i 
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iLut iCjLj/IjjJ! ojla 4-<uL3 ^3 jj_uj/j . 3_jjjtlll cjLj/IjjJ! ojla ^^a Ljij^s 

L&jjX-I 4-uilj.i J^^Li- (j-a 4-Ujj<JI (JjLuj (_gJJ! (j-uIagJI I JJb JlLa (^yi^. JjJ La 
i^jjlI! (jJajJ! «Laj| i ajlje a ^3 3ib J_>JI L^jLtc^J 4-uiIjJij itiu JL>JIj j<uJl2J! 
3j_ui j<i>i 4_<_>jj<J! 4jlD! 4jj/!jJj iSjjJtDI (jjJLLiVI jl Oajlj_>JI *_U3jj 
I La 3. £ii\) i"i~i i 'I U I g-ilc jUal (jr^' sLajJiill 4_ujjlI! CjLiil! (j-a Lgjlji-I 
4jj/IjJj i L^j3 SJVjJI jjlajj sLujjlJI CjIjj^sI cLuilj-ij i(4-LaLtJ!) CjLiil! (<u-ul 

'.CjLu/IjJ-II aJ-tb j>^' il^J .Aj)«ntl d^j-J (j^ '^h'J"*-" ^i>*-^' ^tH4^ 
is^sj i^ljijtj LiLj^ 1836 3 iiii j^lj->JI ^ Delaporte, Ojjj^Lo j uu -I 

.a^ujjji ajtiii ^ 

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.4JjL2_a JjLu SjjjjJI 3JlL!I =U3 JjLluj i I862j 1853 (_,*?<« 
. 1 857 3 (in i3jjjj_u ^ 3_ujjJ! 3JiiII : o'j-"^ LiLj£ Reinaud jJjj j uuj -3 
(_j-3 L^-iIjTj 3_i_ijjlJI 3_«il! jjjIj -.^IjJjlj 3^j/ljj Munk dLJ^a i_Ulj -4 

. 1857 d '( ( u ^j-ujjLu LAj-iIijj iSljjUJl JUu 4jj-ajlJ1 4JlU1 
. 4_j_aL*J1 t. <l-w 4JLl ^—3 4jL_uj : I 905 4_u_u ^—a- J L u j u j-iluj -5 

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. 1934 dim Cjjj_u i,_jjIlaJLi 4-ujjJ! CjL-JjJlLI jj i ntj-aJI jL^Jtl! 
^--3 * )J-*-J' JJL-i CjL?e_^J ^j^ * * '.(jl^-ULj uLlS i-Lgaj] d i ■■ <* I a_A j-iIujj -8 

. 1937 - 1936 tj " i i n jj!j^>JLi t_i!jV! 4_Js cj Ijj i"i i a jtin ij_3j_<iJ! 

jj ■>■ I a «_ a) (jljj^>. ^^ 4_i_ijj(JI CjLrt^U! : (jljjjij LLjS lLLI jS j_<Iijj -9 
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. 1946 j 1940 (^-Lu- o-^Lu 

■ _£ ^—JJ.JLjl i"»j . ^»ll jqJLc ^3 Cj1j-u3L^t_a t^jljlju uLUS Llc3J] \juu iq -10 

. 1941 S-L^ijjIj^JI 
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. 1968 5_u-u 4j«jJa jLcl j<u . 1956 3_uj/ ^jjjj ^ (SjjilJI 
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i ■ t— a9 JLiJJ Jjj i ii (ji^- i Lbjul cAiJ l '*-ii>*-" J-i^ l£>** ' 4ib 4-AJjJJ 4j^iil! 

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4j^>L>JI JutLdl I g-ifl d-n-j^lj ^((j 1 ntj-aJI t_ilj»" 1 11VI (^ 3jjj|j^>JI 4jj/j jJLl) 

3^.jJj1I 4_ujjlII '"'I UjU^-t I j sLi^sLc. 3j^j!j_>JI cjLjSLLI oulij it_ilj»" 1 nzL 

. «Ijjj/ JL>. (-;r i^- LtaJj^ (jr^J * ^J a (juj»"i 1 11 U (j-o j-ui JJ^. L^-La 'I aj ■ ■■! ( _ ;r lll 

:5^uaL»XI 4JL>ji,l -J 
. I jut l-La^j (jJI 3_ulill 3_lI,L«JI t-jj^>JI jj».ljlj 1942 3 '< < ,1) Ijuj (^j 



129 



LuijS \jS 6>,ujall uLuilj^JI AjjIj 

^ oJLnlLq 4_jj?e^_La <JLc (J^ i^.! ' " U"^^ t^-L? t"inoll ^ JLJ 'j M»-j| ' ^ a Jlj>oj 

ii_Sj_La_i pJ-3 jl (O-Lc (_L£ ,j_a (jjjli-Lj J-jlj^l Q^jj <"i i .iU (jL£ i! i«Lujj<JI 
Jlj>.!j i_Sj_Ia ^ 1 r fg-^-^J<S>J (4^_aLaIL&! (j jij i <a Sj («^-Lo (jjy-i^Lni! tt j i r-i La 

i^—jj-jLjl ^j-b 1 j-JL>J I * O^/Lj ^j a < *-> Jell * -o j ■ a * 1 JL^_l3 iCjL-oljJJl £JLA ^j-* 

(j-i! jl U-.I >Jl£ <j 1J> - a Vi^4 -i j ,- ^*.'J 'eri>"*"" cr^iJ^' V-^^ -1 J ''"VJ 
-n g < a * * ij i^-^^ij-oVI pLalo* z 1 fi\* ] -n j ' a * « j t^. i Til, IS jtix^Lij jl td ulla 

pj^j jl iCjIjUAJI (j-a SjHa ^^ i_oVLi ji i«Lujjl!I 4ii!Li jl ij^jjJI TtjjLlILi 

,1 aj.V.tl j| «_j^ mi" 1 1 jl (iujijj! jl (jjjJLJLS 4-us^Ljj/ 2! CjLu/Ij jj! pjlj-3 (j-a 

.fell 
(j!jL_i_a ( _ 3 -3 (jj j 1 11 ij-fl-JI QJ-JJ*" 1 11 U oj-sol La jj-jLi '(jr-y La_!^ '("' '"'J 
Lg-La J-""-> La j£ j (jr^- J LajiLi 1 "J .JLaX.1 (j-a *Li^L>JI jl 2_aL«JI CjLu/ljjJI 
I j 4_La (jLS La VI ^1 1 j * 1 ■■ LuLa CjVLiLa (J£, i"i_) L^la j-<Iu La Lai it_^£ J'C i"m 

: kTjLuiljjJ! dJLt 3W-" Cr 3 *"sL>. 2_uj-&! 
: I gj 1 "^j"j jLljI/VIj (jjjljjjl j_<Iu-l 
. 1806 d i i n ^j-j_t-£5o_ii] (Sjij-Jl) SjU-L^a-fl ^-j-uL-uj^ jqjv^j -I 

. («LLaJj d Lu S) * )LiS_) d lisej rt I j" ^j" *-a (^-xl d d 1 * a) Liiajl j-*Iijj -2 

4_u_u I j" ^j" f-a l_Aj-iHiJ JL9J i((_^3jLaJl ^1 j* mi jj- ^-iL t^ e T i-La) «uj -3 

. G. de La Grange jiJ!j^.Vjj «_a (jjLtl!Li 1 822 

(—ijjjjJU Qj ^^11 ^^j-xl «L<il*_a 7~jJZj) * )V1 (JLL_uj»j JJ ^jL-o^oS jjHijj -4 

. 1819 4-L.u 
' lo "^ *<-£>■*! l)^-^) i o^-" J J-^ /*-* ^jjLtjjLi i 1837 «Lu_o i^oJuj j-^Huj -5 

. (^yjLcV!) t_)Lo (j^. IM-2-1 j^.LSJ! 3l_o- ^c 3jijLiLaj 7-^j-u±i i4-«j>.jjj LilLa 

. (^ jl i^L>J1 jl ♦ Mil) «Lc^_<u5E_a i 1 838 cLu_o ^j-ujju ^—b i^j^Lt-uj.} j-^Huj -6 

4j^_u_uV1 «LL->JL1 (_£ ^j-ilijj i(«L3j-Lsj ^j n anU ^ ♦ mi) -n la * rt O^H f^-^^HJ "^ 

.(jj^cLiJ! (j^. ^j j 1 a 3 CjLu/IjJ «_a 1841 4_Lui 

. 1 8552 i 1 .1 ((j^jLaJI j^jI (jljjj)Barges (j.i-vj-i t_iV! j uijj -8 
. 1867 2 i 1 H (j^ijjLi lJ £ (Aj^' dh 1 ^^l/^ o'j^- 2 ) Boucher 4 j u»jj j uijj -9 

(j_a l_aJl_lj Si ) J'^ a (j^ILu/J 4jLa3^Lj) (,3-ijj-aJI tjlj^-V * '^*_ J '""J "'0 



ISO 



. I875j 1870 ^P-L^ (^u La iJ^lH^Li 

«Laj>.j3 *_« *M^> q**< i i"itl fj-ujj (^-jLuJJl «UuLlJ1 (jl^j.}) £■ j^jjjjj-O j-iIij J - I I 

'J ".! '"' ^^ 9-°^=-* m>-^ *^ I *— *i> c ' ^J '"' ' d J^- ' ' ^* a *^! l_ sLUd tj i4_u_ujj-3 

. 1869 2 ; i, i (j-ujjIj (^a 
. 1883 3 i in (^j ■ ^ 1 1 j-j-*3 dri^ 1 -" *^ o'j^-O GuyardjL^. j iVij -12 

jJLij j-cl i ii )l 5% j i n *_« ^j-Lt-£5^AJ (3jj-iI1) 3ju^a3 4lluU j-iIijj - I 3 

. I 894 d i i n 3 )u-LaJilj -rjuuj^ 
. j-J-AJ ^)J t_tJiSLI (jLkjji O-iL) 3Jljj^i3 I i eaj I j-"UJ - 14 

.191 2d i i ii (jjcj>. j^j (jjj I (jljjj) iil! jS j-""->J ■ 1 5 

4_Lm i doll « i^aJI ja^j ( JjjJJI dh 1 *JL>^ o'j^-V '-^-^ ^\ S-SLuaJ J-*-"- 1 J " ' 6 

.1926 
cJaxa) (jjiAill (^ I Mm ^>j! SjLu^ai Carra de Vaux ^sjjIjL^ /«j>.jjj - 1 7 

. 1899 a_L^, (j^jVl J^J.1 (>o dJLJ! 

<Lil n* 1 1 n jj-* lJiJLjj /jy^Ji ((^pajLoJl ^yi\ «Lul3) Liiaji cLi_oAj ^_A jqj>.jJJj - I 8 

H_gj n'lii^tl r>"»J (^-^«-!l dh 1 SijJa olw-O Seligson jj mitlm j-^Jj -19 

. 190 I d i i ii jj-ajju (—3 i ( _pil^>.j j ^ i ■■*" «_a i4_<i^.jjj Lu_a 

. 1903 5_Lu, ^IjiUlt ((<sJtu«JI ^o^) A. Roux jj (t>-j3j -20 

(j-J i—cj-SL! (^U i ii Ouu) 3 ' j i a 9 ij (mJ-SjjJI (2>-i! 4_loV) I *'*•_" (<u>.jjj -21 

. 1 904 5_Lu ij^aj 
. 19052-L^ (>utj 3SUa) dilj^j^ijj -22 
4-j^ j i iiVl 4L>J,I '-(j^ ((Jj_L>. ^ 3-a^Li-u (jljjj) jlj-A (jLnjJs j-<luj -23 

. 1910 3_L^, 

(' flj^JaJl C-iLuJI 'Lblj ^^jLui^llJl (jj^-ll < *jA<- '^ '^ a ) I ■'-ji j uUJ -24 
Tj-u> ;<— « 'dti'j^ o - ^ (*3^ Jr!-" ulftj-Vj '"''; H. Peres (jjijj_u (»L3j -25 

.1930 j 1927 ^j" ii .I j^lj-jJLi <_ -i 1 _a VI *LiiS ^^jj <"• '° *.(j » '^ ijj^Ltjj 

(<u . I 93 I 4_Lm 4jjj i hVI 4JL->J,! '•(_ ? ^ (r - ^L>JI ^Ijjj) Q^j ij i iiLa j-<i-ij -26 

. 1955 4_u_o 4_uLtI1 d **'* ''^ J '"" 'J 4_u_ajj-flJ1 /^J! «Lj_<3J>.jItJ aL^ 



SI 



LuijS \jS 6^uj&ll CiUulj-vJI AjjIj 

: I g" a >j.3g ^LaLxJI <Lu^VI t_ij5LJ1 j^lj -i_j 

jq^>.j-IIj La (j' ^ "** N rt f-a ifQ-lJ-^Jl (—ijJtJl » )_}2l c_*Io ty\£- \J-it tj£j-i^ 

*J - c J > + '■"'' 9 4-o^^ uiXl 9 d L^3-Ajl (j_Ol_J_a (_£ O-i J_>J1 ^—jjjlJI * ).} 21 jj-* 

(2yi i "^ d La£ LuLo jLo jL>i jj- ■i>^ Jt -J ^9-! ^J-*- 1 La^j JuljUj 4_u_}2l ploj^l £jja 
£j£- CxJ J_>J1 (J-*Jj * (Q-Aj-lCJ Js3^ojs_a c-a-j-=»oj j^_a_u Sa o^j ^jSj>J1 Jjj^jj 
jt ■- 1 ' aa ] »J1cjJl_>j1 j L^a-JLJI ^—S 4_u_ujj-iJl ^—11 4_ujjlII jj»a 4_aj>.jIUl 4ijj>. 

«La^>.j»j jl a> i"i 1 La jj_)2 -ij— *-" ij-^- 1 '-^tJ-^J 'i^ J ' " l^-^J' Cj^J ***' ' "^' ^-^ 

•./qjJlJLJI Lu.it (j_a L)^J i 'I iJ-aJ> iJtfr^***' 1 11 U 
jj^_j 3j_a JjV d j 1 11 tj-flJI (^1 («LLJj «LLJ i_aJl) ^j^ Laa jVLc. (<S^>-JJ - I 

. 1708 j 1 704 ^pJLu. 

.((jLoJsJ (JlILal) I i^ijl jujj-jjj -2 
4_uj/ (4JjJj 4jLJ i_aJl) (j_o *j^>- 4-«j>.jj ull J I a ■ -j > jj jLu/^i jLclj -3 

. 1806 
.1818 3 i in (jU^l JLul) 5ujj.j^j Liajl aLsj -4 
.1819 3 ; in (mJjjj^JI iZjLoIJLo) dil j£ («-=^>ij -5 

dim LUajl (4_LJj «LLJ i_kJl) (j-a Lj^>- dj 1 mj-aJl ^\ q hjU tV (_LSj_j -6 

. 1813 

.1814 3 i in (i^j^tjJI ^Lijinitl) 2 '^a Liajl (ft^-jJJ -7 

* iLxSJl (J_t-oi (_3 cLajJLa «_a (c\_La_}j 4_Lj_LS) (^_a i _i_uL_uJ.i j-iIujj -8 

. I 822 J 1816 /j **i i 1 n (j-U La 4_j_aj>.jILaj 
^-HJl 7-^j-iHJl ct_Lv>> (j-a jLlis_a t~j^lIuj ((_£j»jj^>J1 CjLaLfLa) Lt^aj] on 'J -9 
Cjl_j_3j » )L1S (j£. ^t-3j m^j-jj->J1 3Lj_>J 4_aj>.jjjj 4_jjj-C 4_ajL^_a «_a iO-aJ-33 

cLLajx (jut I 799 4_u_u j ' a rt (—3 Llc3jI (^jLa-SJ jJLLat) ^J_u_ujLa ^>-j3j - I 

( _ ? -3 (mJj-jj->J! CjLaLoA (j-a «QJLl)Ij ^j^i! jjOxLai!) lLLjjs («j>.jjj -I I 

. 1834 

. 1841 4_L(-u (SjJH^. 4_ua£) jj-* '*0^ ^ ^? '"' *J "'2 



152 



luuji (^9 6^ujall OluuljjJI (Cljil 

. 1 847 d i < u (' a i '-j i ^ -^ a ) oji^H (°-^J-^J ~ ' ^ 

. 1854 3_L^ (r'jJ-LI 5 i ^ «) dilji^ (^jjj -14 

. 1 862 d i i a ((jL^uJ! ' ^j i ■■ 4jIjij) (0^>-jjj - 1 5 

•.^Ijitj^jjj/jiiU (jjjJI jjJ (<Lu.}^l Jlilo^/I) deTassy (jjj/Ljjj/ajj-jjj -16 

.1821 4_L^ (jLtjVlj ^\jj^1\) 
. 1823 4 i 1 1. ((_gjjj_>Jt cjLaLiLa) (_£Jl>.I LUsjI («j>.jjj -17 

. 1846 4_uj/ ((_gjjj_r»JI CjLaLia (j-o (j-uMill 3-oLiLU) jjjjj_»I/ j«j>.jjj -18 

. 1847 3 ; iii u-ujjLi ^ 

(jjijjLi ^j^ (2 Jl -^ 111 t_Jjj I j~ uj 3JLL>JU 4JjJj)j . 1852 4JLm (jjtjjLi (^^ 

. 1872 3_L^ 
(jjj) 4jKs. (3IjJj 4LJ i_il l) <j_o F. Groff i_ajj^. 4jj<"imU cjj m'tj -2 1 

. 1889 3_Lu, (j-ujjLi ^ (^Li^V! 
jj^j \-ttj ui ij (3_j_al_*JI SjIU^. Sjji .1 j i aj se a) Devic i-iLi3-S (<sj>.jjj -22 

. 1870^1846(^1^ 

. 1870 dim ((_£jjj^>JI CjLaLiajJ *L«j>.^3 Liiajl J-""JJ "23 

i_iLi£ ,j_a (^LUIj Jj^l (jjij^>J! j^±i (ji <jj>i- 1 j-o Lc.j.5 ^(ji nij -24 

IjSs i4jLo *L«i-i3j i_iJJH 3Lo~ j^c d j i ii >j-3 3_ajii<u n_gj? nil (i ■ ■jlajl 7=-"2-0 

. 1861^1858 (^JLL^o^ Oi^ 

t4 a -wjjjj LuLua i jJLLo (^_i «LoL_u2 (jL»Ii£. 2(1) * sLo pj^jjjj-l.} j-ilijj -25 

. 1892 j 1889 (PJLu. ^ 

. 1866 dim (jjijjLl j^^ (4_LaJJ dljK) i_jLjS I l eaj I j uUJ -26 
^djlj^-mtl JjJLlIIIj (jJjJI *}Lc) <LjL£j>J (jlir-iVl (j^aljl dl!jl£j-<ijj -27 

. 1888 d i i n tj j i nLfljJ j^lo^. «_a i4_^j>.jjj Lu_a 
4 i i ii j_j|j_>J! j^^ (4-LjJj d I j I i_iJl (j_a CjljLjiejs) jjji! Jjjt J-"UJ "28 

. 1864 

^—5 i4_uj-c j-jl3Lj_utj jljj>. t /^-Aj t [4 '-^^j «Lua^ i—klt) 4_u_uL j-tHuj -29 

. 1924 4_L(_u (j-ujjL] 



55 



UuijS \jS 6,-ujaJI CjUuIj-VJI AjjIj 

. 1922 3_L^ (tijJtJI .iLjM.itl o}Lvj) La$JljL£ j_ijj -30 

(j^ 4 j i ii ij-aJI (^1 (4JjJj 4LJ i_iJl) (j-aJJ-'j'- (*-*v>ij "3 I 

. Ijlsca 

l—LLo 4«L_»_l1£ (^h 1 I'b * ' > ) * '"' '' * J L-& 4_oJuLo) (JuawjJ j»<Iijj -32 

. 1947 A 'i ( a i(jjijjLi ^^ i I gjic CjLLlLlJ *_a i«L«j>.j3j 
Cjj-iliJ Jl9j ' ((J ^J ' ^ ' (O^J-«2IJ ^-jjjlII » )_}2l) » )Lo jj-ujj-jj x_uaj)j -33 

. I9553_L^ j^lJ^JI ^ S-^oLJ! <i"«jU 

4_u_u_]j»i] u 4_ajJL« *_« ■ la 3» I se i ' {^j-jjjGJlj *_ujI1j1 «uL_oj) ^l_u j-*Iijj -34 

. 1956 d i t n Jj t"i aJU ,- i ii M-aJ> ' j * U C 1 1 j iQ uiLa m o (<*> 
^_3 , , U -. I -»■ 11 (^^iiejJI) t_jLjSLI «L«j>.jj (J^3 (j-a j-""-i JL9 ^rh 1 0^9 "^5 

.1951 5-L.j o-^W 

. U ^ I -> 1 1 (^^lU 3>U-! ^ r^JI) t-jbSLI 2u>.jj dl! j£ }Lu ><iJj -36 

CjLolJLa) (jj: ! jji£. P. Masnou j i . nLa «_o (jjLuJLi j_lJuMj r^j-^9 "37 

. 1957 3_L-u (_>uJjLi ^ ((^Jl Jl^^JI 
■i^^I (i aj b,-, ,„ ^ ^ J£ ^ • «jU~.,„ll) i_jL^ Rat lj (<u>.jjj -38 

. 1902 j 1899 ^ " i i .1 (>u (j^ijjLi (^ oj uijj i^ygj^SuVI 

4_uj/ (jjtjjLi (^^ (4_LaJj 4 IjlS) i_jLjS (j-a ^j i ea£ (JjSLlo 4jj JU I jojvjjj -39 

. 1957 

^V (5j^JIJIIj £• LiaVI) t_jbSLI <U^>->J M. Berge 4_l>.j_i dJjLo j_ijj -40 

. 1969 4_u_u JjjUi-a.} ^—3 4^Jl_o*9jJ1 (jLp* 

jljI w i c (jj)j»Sj»j 1^_)LS ^ j i n ij-qJi Cy^j ***' ' "^ tl)' ' ^' ■ ■■ L^j^ LJaj&LiQ 

i3_ol_2j.!j ijjiilj 2 LaJLJl :4_iJLlJI pljJ^Ll (jl*IJ cr^- 5 ^' L"Lp 6-° ^H 1 - 

SjLliJ,! jLjVI i ^,^""j .^LlI! i_oVIj t 2jjt Mitl jj i.illj 1 2'ajUltj i2jI£L>JIj 

JjJLiJIj ipLLoVlj ttLxxJtjfa] I '•(_ ? -A 4_uj/Lj/I ili\ a i ii vij^lij sLjjvjIIJIj j mi ill 

Jiiflj ^1 j_lC (j-o mJj^s-I (^1 4JlI (jjs (^jal (_)-aJjl Jil i . itir^ll (jjs ^IS Li 
>-jn it* llj (JjJLulIlj <_3JLaiJ 4j*_uj 4jJL«^>JIj sLujLj/VI 4j^ajL^ii.j C * J> "JU 



I 31 



luujj (^9 6*ujaJI CiluuljjJI (Cljil 

JlJj-3 i4j^» i"itl 4-«j>.jI<J! 4-i^L>.j i4jjJjI =L«j>.jI1J! ■"'! -lu~ « ^_a dllj j_i£.j 
i4_ljj!jJj j » i"i tl aLoI *\_La j-jiSLj JJSl Sjjiill i_<IlSLI! ,»Lal pjlA^i (jlSj 

j\ i_jj_«J! jLi^. L^jj ^ i"i I «L«j>.jiLI 4jsj^LL! cjIjLijJ,! *-«^>- llL!jl> IjJjuxi nlj 

^—j-u-ij-flJI ^jLJLJI ^—LajLj ^ji ^2)^-4-1 * oVI 1 jla < ^'^^ tj-* LuL>. JIL^-j L^-)V 

.(jlSLo^! jjls «Jal_jJ! ,j_a 5_ljj^ eriW "-J-sSU 3j>»-^ lS->L«J! j' i—ij+'mU 

ij\- 1) ***< in U *_a (j a 1 a * 1 (j -4-4 * » >-*-jl * iLLSJI jqJ ^j^ * * t_£JjLlu La_ijj 

' a jj * **' 1 Cj1jLL>JJ £J_A (JILa ? i !<•> ^—5 i L_ujj-5 ^—3 lJJ i ^ * jl (j^J ' " * >^jl 
0jy_<lu La p-tb2 (_psj^. I JLAj i4_ujjlI! 4JtU! jLiLi ' d-S-J, I fj 1 11 tj-aJI j j j -1 -- II 

'.ao-lII ^—J! (—uaLLI (jjJiJl » Uajq J_La 
Ixululq u1^a_t£. I golg (jjllsl *J .! ^ '"' ^^H-^' CjljLiis_a ^-luLui jJ J-*-* 1 - 1 " ' 
3-J-aV) ^Lla 4cj-a->JU 0JL& Cj^s. JJSJ . (jjiVmiU i_JLLii! JUil! (j-u-U^I) '.jj* 

(jLaj-11 *_]J_J CjLaLJLa) ^j^ * «J i((_£j-*_U) jl * u)l ^j^» 'J ' ;jTj A * ,". it (, Sj-*-J' 

Cj^L>.jJ1j tcjjLUIj » )_}2l c_*IxS (j-* ^ ^ '**'"- rt ^j -~*J ' •*** * * uL>. ^—1! ' ( w )l JLo^jI 

1 LajJjijj *Laj>-j3j LlLo CjI jJL-*-a 4j^O ^^ 0JL& 43ljLjie-a C^jlSj JL9j . Ltj-tcj 

. 1826 j 1806 (_, " i 1 .1 (j-u I j » j U ja3 
i(jLl>J,! j jJI) Lai a • ul 4jjj<jI/ cjljL<ie-a 1 827 4_uj/ ^^ LUajl j-<i-ij -2 

4_S_L»_a)j ( w ui£ VI d 5 1 * rt ) /j-1^. ^^ILr»o L^J^ ^aj_>oj L^jIajj 4_4j>.j3j Lu_a 

.(aiuLui 

ljl_«_Jul j I 3_i_ij_c. cj! jV'ia 1819 3 i in (^ Humbert j ,; j o fr j uijj -3 

. g j jfl mi i a >££■ ^^i)-^ 
. LaI <i i ul ^-jjjljI ^* i"it I t j- a ^-i' i't**! i a I 828 <3_u_u ^—b ^_jlj-C 2( j.} j-^Huj -4 

. (jl» i"i^fl c_LJeTi-La ( _ ;r 3 jLajVI t_ticj) 
( _ ;r uj/l (j-a jju>.LjjJI (_^jjl) '• Lai a i ill (_Jjj>.| 'Lujl CjljLaitA Liajl «Uj -5 
jJsj tf. )l , I 1 j'' CjLaLiLa ^j-a ^JjlI 4_ajvjjj 4jLj^Hjt_a 4J_aj>. jj-aj • (jj-ljIjjJl 

. I 828 d i i ii L^j^Iij 
I 846 ^"i i i ii j2tV 4_LaL«JI sLujjJI 4jlLILi 'Lujl Cj I 1 3ej i a sLjjJjj-i j_»Iijj -6 

.I867j 

. LUajl 3_LaLtII ijUjjJI 4ii!Li 5_u^i CjI jViia Belin o^rh 1 J "ijj "7 



55 



LuijS \jS 6^uj&ll uLuilj^JI AjjIj 

p9_3J?e_a) ".(jlaJjLJ i4^j>.j3j LlL« i4_uj-C 4_u ^ t Cj Li^tlJLa ^-j-u Lj J ^ j-*lij J -8 

:cjjj-lm (jJLJJI J-j-c *_a (jjl_nl!Li F. de Martino j_Li3jLa j± j uijj -9 

. 1902 4_L^ 4j]lfi]| L^UJa oJl£j -(jiHtll J>ill o-° ^Ijl^" 
LlL« t^jl * Mitj ^jjtll JjL-oj jj-* di 1 i>"ia G. Salmon ^j^JLL-o j-^Huj -10 

. 1904 d im (j-uJjLJ (—3 i4_ajJLa x_a i4_4J>.j3j 

i I 924 4_u_u ^j-ujjL) (_£ i(* )j»C (j^djj-fl) '.^jl^-ULJ uLiS ^Jjj mi La j-*Iijj - I I 

. (* sj-*-li * iLiSJl jljS (j-* 3jLlit_a OLscA-Lta) :^_A jj>. i ^jl^-t^. 4Jj 

x_o (^U_aL»j1 (^jj-jlj^>JI * )J-*Ji (j-* 9-^J t( - i i mi ^ (l)- 1 ^^ JL*-*_u j-iIiJJ - I 2 

. 1945 4 i in o'j-^J Cr^ "^JJ^»JI C^J^' J-*-^' 
^j-^j Lalll Jjij>.|) . (jIj^jlj 4jjjx. CjljbitA Dermenghem /gJLlaj^ j uuj - 1 3 

.1951 4 i in (j-ojjLj (j.3 t (4-uj->JI 
j * <"i]\ jj-a ' ' -^j ' aa 1 i^j-ujju ^—3 (ftJ-d-a ^-JjX. 3-Aj iAl a^. 4_jjj j-*I1ijj - 14 

. I960 4 i 1 1. (jjjjjLi ^^ i^^jjJI 

^-JjjlII * ).} 21 jj-° CjljLiJE_a 4 QjJL>. 4_a^L<_u! (j-*^' L^ 4 -^' ' - "m * J ' " M - I 5 

. I 96 I 4 i i n Cjjj-u ^—3 i4_u_ujj-tiJ1j 4_ujjlIu j-t-autXl 

i—ij^l (j-o cjljLjica ijjj^i-l *_o (jjL»HJLi iMakarius (jjjjjjI£_o j_<Iuj - 1 6 

. 1964 4_Lu/ (jjijjLi ^^ 1 4-i*aJLl Ij 4jI^_)J! ^^ j_i^sLni! ^^jjiJI 

jjjj^jiiil i—iLlSLI! (j-o i_ul£ 3l_o~ 3jL«J! ( _ ;r a cjLu/IjjJ! ojla JfLa JjLujj 

(j-a (^3 (Jji-ij (jJl Jjj-k-J '-^Jj ">J'< i"mJ »Ij< i"itl (jjs j^.LJu 3Lo~ J I iijjulj 

^j-o 'Jl-^ j' 4_i_ojljt_a jj-* 4_i_ujJ_o jt 4_i_jJLi_ot jj-* * laj t nt ij\ * JjVI (J9-I^ 

i_Jj^i! TtjjLj 4jj/!jJ (JjLs- jl 4_ujVI j j i a « 1 1 (j-o Ij '^"* (j-"J-i L^JJ '^-J'j^H 
CjL_u1jJJI i>J_A p'3-it (j-° P3 -1 LP Lh* L>«49-4-i m^j-u-uj j j , ^ a 1 1 \jl^ ^-jjjlII 

(j_o 4-g,j-qjy_a jl 4_jjjJ jl 4_L*_a jl 3j_ilu ( _ ;r 3 CjVLia J's i"i_i j-<iJ ^liiJIj 
il_Lik '^'"J^J'^''''" LJLj T ( -5 i^. -4-iSlj i""n 11VI jl 4-ulj»" 1 nVI CjLcjjujJJ 

j^.jG LJ, (_psj < i 1 n'q (^liJ! JSL<iJ! Lalj t j M.itl ,j^ Jj^/I J*\ uJI j^j ^Ir 



136 



luujjj \j9 6^uj&ll CiluuljjJI (Cljil 

:<_iI£J1-I 

. 1 855«Lu_u Laj-iHu ( Aj.tTu->J 1 ^2j_j cLjJla) j-cLiuJ1 (j-^ «l_u1j^ Lc.j_} <_ JiS - 1 

4-LtjU l_A%— Ui-1 (a^L_i_u VI (J-J-3 (-JjJtJl jJLjUJI) jj-^- 4-i-u1j_} 4_U_uL) c_Ji£j -2 

. 1880 

4Jl_aj (j-l^>- =Llj_i^sl (j_a ^^jjlJI t_O^LJ La_jjLj jlj-A (jLa-lIS l^&J "3 

tiJJj jl*j » jU j<u 1 1902 3 i in (jJjVl d'njU j iSu ^(^jjjJ! t_j^Vl) :<jljJL«j 

4j>.jj>.j (ji ^1 (j-n i ii ij-aJl tjUjt" i ii U JLt£. 4-iLi (^ 4-A^. Vjjla (JJi i Ijlj-' 
_3j j i u t_£JJ> > j Mi^ij jj-o-tjttjj JJ J ' ■■ 1 1 im i " 'J-^-J' * * > ***' ' " U * )LiS cLajJLU ^j-a 

. 1 904 3 i i .i L&j uij («L^la ^ i_utj) (jx. 3jjiIj j 4Jj -4 

(<uj£LI! (jjjJLJ! ^U-a (j-a 4l«j>- ij^i 4 i Mill S ^>-J u^ 4-uiljJ lillji 4-Jj -5 
(j_o 'CijLc. OulSj . 1904 4-Lm Li&j i"i i i^^-J-S-iJ ' i-.l.^tl ^jl ^j 4-usl jl» i"ilj 
^-HJl J " ' ••*» 1 I JL>.) (JlS A_Lai » * mi t jl-4_<jX.j JL>. ^-J^-C^u-l ^jl «Li_oljjJ1 £JUJ> 
J4JLIL1 JLlkJIj ..(jlj_aJ! > i<ij (^ (p 1 1 nj d jlr 4il! (jli^Q (_yJ-JI I g-ilg Jlajc! 
Cjl_al_2_a Jiaj ( _ ;t j>.jij_<jJ! juj 3-1 1) .(jlj-utj «Luiljj C. Dumas LojJ V-^J "^ 

.1917 3 i 111 jjIJ^JI ^ \jtjj^i (i^jjj^J! 
L^j JLJ i(ojL«jiilj 43l_o- '-(jj^i) (IhO '(J^* - ^-"<Ij^ jj^ '"' ' ,it *j^ 1- »*Kj -7 

. 1920 3 i 1 .1 3 ;jU;,„a ^ Ltj £uj i^Ijj^jJI 3j».jj 

^jlje^jI x_]IjJ1 (j^Jill (j-° J-^ Lw) ".^jl 9_uu «Li_u1j.} j-uHi^Li (j "J^jJ CiIxSj -8 

3j>_aL>. ,jja ijIjjj^jJ! 3j>.jj L$j JLJ ^^yjjlil < mUH ^j! :(_gj^LJLl jJ^UJ! / 

I 935d f 1 n /j-uJjLu LAn i"i I a ^j ajj i 11 JI 
I i^2] 7C_JjLj) '.^jl 9-ULJ I ^J IQQ Lil^ LtJtJ ) J MI^Ll (J iM'fc-jJ ^Q l<1J -9 

tjjj 1973 3 i in «Glaj cJL^.j 1 1966 j 1952 ^ "i ; i .. (>_i ■ La la 4_Lo iZjIjIscji 

a^LuiVI jj_i^sj 4_i_Litl_>JI 3j_j-<LJ! (_fj-<-u CjI JlL>J,l ijJLA w La «"' Vj i4xLxjI 

ujIj »" 1 11VI ^^ 3_jj_jIj^>JI cLuijjJ,! jj^ j-Aj ijjjijj-u (_gj_Lit i_k!lj -10 



J7 



UuijS \jS 6,-ujaJI CjUuIj-VJI AjjIj 

. 1937 A '< ( <> ^j-ujjLj 

1953 4_uj/ (jjtjjLi ^^ Ltj_Juj ioIjjjSjJ! 4j>-jj L^j (JLj 

. (I6) I952 41^, ojJ^i .(L^bTj 2.^! 4ilJl) 
i(ojl£Lal i«L>-LiJ! hjLjuVI : 4jjH3 qjV) '•{_)£■ ^=tj cjjj£_jJ j I j-j^- t-T^j -1 3 

4_u_u (^jIIiaJu ^. i ii tj-aJ> ' j * U Cj Ij n i"i r a ^j g (<•> 0j-*liijj tfljolojjl «L>.j_5 4_i (JLj 

. 1965 

*_<_u1^Jl £1— Lt-dj ^-jj-jlII » )_}2l TtjjLj ^—3 Qjtj C l ll ^ (j aj < nix. i_aJtj -14 

t_jjV! (^J! Ji-jLa) -.(jljjjij 3_ujjJI ^ SjjjlU iajjtil f-j>a i aJljJ J^sLiJI 

. 1966 d ini ^j-ujju ^—3 i>j-ilijj ^^—jjjlII 
(jJLv Mj-J'-II J-i-c- JjJiJI) .^ 4jj/!jj J. Vadet 4_jjl_a (jL*. i_^j -15 

, (I7) I9684I^ 

IjJl 4_Jj_i^sl (j_a (^jjlII i_0 2l 7cjjLj ^j^ I jj'iS (Jj£_La 4jjJJI J-""-!J -I 6 

. (I8) I969 ^^^jLi J 355 ^j_> 
L^_i JLJ i((_gj_^».jJLll o^H 5 " c-^') -ij-^ ^-"-"Ij-s '^^J-^ l -^j'- a '- <"^j "17 

, (I9) I974 aiu, oljj^jJI 4^.jj 
i_a_!l ^^ .^a (^ 3-«-l3 4jj/Ij j N. Elisseeff i a j j mjLI LjjSLu <_JjSj - 1 8 

. 1949 4-iLm J) iliaJU ^_ i n ij-tiJl J ^ * 1 1 Cj lj|fl mi f a 

v^jL^L^VI) -.^.a olj^I^jJL! Ll=tj Ch. Vial JLj_a JjLi J^-^j -19 

. 1957 3 i ni (3j^aL«I! Sj^oJ! ^ 5_ujj«J! 3^^211 ^ 5ucUl>.V! 
i_jjV! (^ '"«! j 'j La II) '.(j-3 L^-^ F. Vire ^jj-^s lj . .. Mj-a (J^=-<-uj -20 

.oljj^jJ! JjH 1959 dJ^, ( Cr iyti\ 
(jLJ jLjT) . (jljijij <Ls-jjJa? R. Arie 4_ujl Jj.'iilj <Lij <"ii.it,! i.".l-r mj -2 1 



158 



.oljj^jJI JjJJ 1962 5_uj (<_^ilajJI <jj (jjjJ! 

jlj a"i I ilLl Ajji" . .Cj_a^E-uMj el .^.tl ^-tl 4_uJ2l CjL-uljjJ! qJZ J)JlC liilLcjtj 

aJJlj x_ aj . 4_]_}LtJ1 4_uaJuu1 jq^jLLsuIuj {j o i<*> 4_aLc (j^^ »**' ' " U I j jjS ] (-gJ' 

JS J a uu 1 4-uJ)2l CjLcuIjJuM fa-£u 0jL*J)j!j ^ i mj-aJI i_)lj»"ii .iVl i " 1 1 j La a. 

. L^jjJL>.j I j 1 1 ■ '* 4_uJ)2l jj uajdl i abac a ( _ ;r 3 JjiUlj 4jL"SL!! (jj-t3 

:O^Lai -2 
(^LlILj LuSLoJ Vj i4_uj)l CjLcjj^jjjs ( _ ;r 3 C^jjS (^jJI CjVLiLaU j Laa. V 
(j-o (jl J-J-C i ! JUt Liiae-i 3" 2 - 1 O"^ ?TJ^*" L&jJLao> (j2 i Lufc L$j ita-iacj (jl 

j<s_*l (^Jl jjjlj (jl 4_il£LoLi 1906 3 i in J-Js Lg_La <-Sj_L j^lc f-^LLVI j>!jl 
^^lc f}LUV! j)!jl ! J>La . LvaJji ^ 4_u!jj1 j _ u VI jl 5-iSIj uilmVI oLjjjjJ! 

J^La 4 j i ii ij-aJI 4JlL!lj Cj^L>JUj CjLjjjjJ! I algae a ( _ ;r 3 Sjj uilX I CjzL2ll Ji 
(jjjj^il! (^ Lyj_2j Lt-LttJ- L#] 4loLJu 4jSI Laa.] ^1 Py>.jJ! 4-cSLgga i 1 906 4_Luu 

(ja muJ vilaa*]! h^J-jIS-j 2l * is «**i i n U 4_aj_Li-ajj 4jtxa^aJ aL9 m^ Jul I Jl>. r*v All 

J_t3 Sjl j -v I'jj-y 4_<-3 Jju jJaa .(Index Islamicus) :(j!j_L«_i J.D. Pearson 
(^ylll CjLsa^/lj ia^aJ I j^JJ ajLuJjl 4ijLc OJI£j tCj\ i hi .ij-Uj (jLaJLII I j" -«-" 
(j-t_«_a c—cljJJLj (j-t_«_a p^ i<i^a_a (_£ 4_i_L*_a cuLo_a (j£. tti3e_ul (-*3 'J^^> ^}^^ 
CjljlJ (j_a La d a]ja La (j-aj (l)" -SJ^C- /^ La *LjJJ-i Jl 41-r a (_3 5j^ i"i i a 

i_xj_)jjill Sj_La (jjij^AJI IJL^Jj -J- ^-' (oJLtll (^ (jrUj t'n. i U j I ij^j iVmit l 

i_^j_ij_Ij I ) • _' j j a .cjVLsILj 4-SLlU I cj Laj U 1, 1 JSLI ^ j t - s ' 1 1 ' ^j'"^~llj 

it_iJ)VI •'"«! Lai LaJL3.VI (. i i .1 -t_i u-ilj t'linVlj (^^Luu^l 3^J ulLlmVI pJj-3 
LjJLa iya I i a " a. I Ji ^^ CjVLoll t^JjJ «J .«J! i Ll3|jJL>JI itujLIII i4jiill 
4jLo_a (JjS jj^ ^-£&'_$ ul)La^aJL»_a /_Ia-tja CjLc^xaaJvlj j j Leajj I ^—ll aj i. i i iiseJ 
ajLSil Cjj_«Ili (_yjJI 4laJ,l (<u-u!j lilLSil (jljJ£.j t_ul£L!l (<u-u! -Jg-a SjLs. (^Ic 
LLiJa «jj .ajLoXI I Jj^** jda-i (_^J' . " 1 1 -»- A i --. 1 1 al^jIj id i i iJIj j_uJI a . Lj-tB 
"^ j a. (j_a ujLLSLII e.\ a i ii 2 4_2_l3J)J 'LlsIj (jjijL^S 4laX. 3^1-^ ( _ ;r a I aJLiaJll 
dJJj j I 5JLS1I i>Jut ^J p^>-jJI j i ii jj La-aj •''t u ^ c *-^ ; ?" O -0 (a^jVLia jjjjLicj 
^j.3 31 1 ill i n*i a 2j LcLuoj LaLsjl CjVlSJ.1 ( _ ;r Iax.l I aJLuaXI (jl pj i^ij^a mJ| (^ 
aLlUI JLaJI 3 *J.'^.' J '"J. 1 I J-Aj iJaMI I JL* ^ 4jLLa jls-T (^JJ 5JLLa Jjt 



59 



LuijS \jS 6>,ujall uLuilj^JI AjjIj 

J-LpJtl jJlj^5 JLSj •f jL ^- a '-'^Lj J£ J 'f. L4I0 ^J^ (_pJI <LujJj«JI 5Ja-uuVI 
jl£ JL3J 1 1955 3 i m ic_l2JI (jSI 1-aa.VI ( Cr a'5L-u)l\ (jjj^AJI) IJLA (jjo JjVl 
4jjj^j-tiaj1 4JL>.^Laj (J-ajtJl I i^-"'l iU/ijm.i* il"i jli dJLL^aJLl (Lȣ Tj* rt Q rt 
(j<_lj »" 1 11 Uj (j<-3j i"i"i 1 11 U (j-a (j-Co-LJ! CjVLiLa jj>. I ^ La «_' (jl (^1 LcLij 
(j-o 4jLa JlS (J5^Lj (jl (jSLa-l La (_dljjij_<_u! «_a t (J^Ua^l 4j*.j <^r^ LgJ^s-'j 

. dJLLuJ! djlj^il! ^yfl cIjVLSII 
■2 LaJLa-JI 3_ujVl CjVLiU ajjt ,j-a roLaJ c^ La-^J 

(3_l2j^sV| 3-LjJ.I) ^yfl 4-u-ujLa jajjj 1 3 u< '.^jjjl ^^Vl jiil! Jj-lo! -2 

. (2I) I927 3_ 
^ Saussey ^ ma_m I j p$ :3_ujj<J! 3JtiII ^ ^^li^jjij J^j (j^Lial -3 

.1931 a_Lj jjIj^JLi (^LujjlI! cuLu/IjjJI 3j-uu) 

I ^ 1 ■■ d * 5^ , 11 i tl ^_3 Lciul /j-^JQ 1 "' : (^*-^J-j! d ' ^* a j ^j-ijLLl /aJ-Aij-Jl -4 

. 1932 3_L^ 

CjLj_u1jJJ1 1 i £ • A Cj\-jJ$j>.) (--£ jj-u-jj-u (^jJ_A 1 g jjS : i _j3j_ilj JUjj>.t -5 

. 1936 ,2 .(a^j-iJI 

(jjlJJ_J_lJ .<Jl4-jJ_>J! (j-IjJlI! i—O^I ( _ ;r 3 ^ '^J lo£ Vlj 4jIjjJ!j 4-l^£]| -6 

. 1937 3 i i ,i L^aij cjLJa^JI ^ Liajl 

(—5 tiUj^S (j-ujj-uJ ' -n J ' gaj i *->l atj * j * a i a 2 ! * )J^*J' (j^-^J-^' ^jLaJuLa -7 

.1941 -1939 3_L^ l a ,„^'i cjLJ^>J1 

CjL_u1jJj1 AAs^ja) (_£ tiJjI\S (j-uJj-uJ : i _j^Jjj^jJJ aLuiA £jj /-uu£. OjJL>. -8 

. 1944, 10 .(S.tlj^J! 
Sj uij) (^ Lecerf i_3j_<j/jJ Lgxi^ :3!b JuJI 3_uj^l S-Ua^illj 3_aLtII i_ol -9 

. 1933 3_L^ (3_^j_,iJ| oLu/ljjJ! 

(_aj_^aJ I gxiS '^^J ' ■■ yi 4_ujjlII 4iil! jaji»jj iiuJL>J! ^jjlII i—O^I -10 

. 1932 a_Lu, (S-lSjjJ^! 5LUJL!) ^ LUajl 

4L^a) ( _ ;r 3 l^j_<j/^J I j pS ".(jlj^*. (_LJi- (j!j-^>. lXIc ^'aj .^»tl 0L30VI - I I 

. 1945 -1953 (a^M^I oL^ljjdl 



MO 



. LUajl 4J -.Su^UivVI vZjUUoVIj j^sUI! Cr ij-*^\ t-jjVl -12 
cjLj/IjjJ! SjjIu) ( _ ;r a o i njV (_gj_La I &±j£ :<da • ..I'aj (_gjjtll *^L«J! ^jI -1 3 

. 1944 -1943 , 10 .(SLlAj-jJI 

CjL-uljjJI . i j»« ."«! jtj-^.1 a jj,",\1 i I j ,",s ;i <tj ^j ^j il jf I uJI^J^aJI -14 

. 1936 2, (4-^j-iJI 
j_ui^Li I j ."X i ,i|j^al (_yila ' n2JI ttIjJ (jjl J-^j-^' j^.LiJ! 3j-j-«-u -1 5 

. 1923 , 7 i(Hesperis ^j J .' ""*> *JL«) cr^ * ''"-'^ 
CjL-u!jjJI 4lj*-a) ( _ ;r 3 I i aj I 4J : (_gj » n II (j!j_i«J! 2JL-ujj 7-jL2J! j^jI -16 

.1941 2_L^, (2_u:}L^)M 

CjL-uljjJI 3j_Ju) ^^ ^M-oj (JjLji ^ J pS '. ^Ij-aL-uj jl Jju (_^ ■ La a. I >i 1 1 -17 

. 1952 , 17 .(^jJJ! 

(JL*-a fjk (jn i ii ij-aJI (j<-ij«" i ii U -Sj#> JLH' ' ''^J*"" "' ^ Qi^- 1 '^6ii 
(j^o Uj^>- lj-l-2-J jJa < J J? liil j J!Ai- (j-o iJLHJ '^JiW ^Th 1 -^' CjL-uljjJt 
£j\ a 2 j 1 1 cLt-£sL>. ' ^JJ »" (j-3 dJJju ^ q j ' " rt i4_u_ojj-i]1 (_!! (—O^/l Ljj'jJ 
4_u_}V1 ujui (j-* ^u-a^t-i icLujjtJu -n j * ^ ^ ' •**■ • * ~»**' 1 1 J p j**' rt ' c j J^ j i n tj-flJI 
4-2JLx_o 4_uJ2l LJjul (j-o !j_>_<Ili Lx-i I i '-"■_' I t_ij-«J! (j^c-i LJjjLal JlSj . 4Lua->J! 

jlsj t j^ i 1 1 1— Aa iXj^cj tCjl 1 1 n <jj-k julj La^_o*1 ]}! iljL>. 1 j olr L2-uL>«j 

^jljJLlI Jj j 5 >i I ^—S -n j **' 5 ^j la L_L»_u1 LaS JjjjJaJl 1 JLA ^—3 -n Al La3- Luljjj 
i LJj^Li ^1 4j-LkiI I Jaio Jjlj j ' • -*~ LujS Oul£ (jl Jjlj njj-Juj ■ La j LaJJtl 
«LaJU>. (—3 (J|J-J*J /^j ijSjU 4_Lfl_u^j jl 4_l^_lS_=»o dint ^1 ^j-a ^Lic «L>.!iL_o 
2 2 2 x " oLt-Ja j^Ja (jJI liilj ^^La .«GjLo 3jiJL>.j dJIi jl t_jllSLII I jbt 
^j ga. ^Ir (jutilall t_j^Vlj 4iil! »l glr jj^ jjLc ^Jji (jif Ijilr Lfljijo 
IjlSLaj -f«-^i' ij^?'-''' Ijufc ( _ ;r 3 sU^Li. (j^j i ii tj-aJlj 4_oLc jj1_ujJ(J! (j-<-ij «~ i nU 
a^Sj l^"^ cL2jjJaJ1 /jj-Aj * "-^'jU ^, ^^" c-uiSJI j i ii it 4_i£ 2(^aJ1 cL2jjJaJ1 Jjlj pj 
Jutl Mii'a t^ycLlaJI l^j^JI (jJI i_gJJUl! i_ajjJ! (j-o jj* I^.UjU^II JZujjle. 
j ^*~ jj-* L-L^a-t-J I g-LgajJ oTLi Kim 4£^ una 3jL>.I^Jl 4-ge.dj aaJl ^—5 jjU , ,.tl 

I j-it (^ I gale ^ I U , ^. 1 1 jajJs^Ut CjIjLJuI ,j-a 3jL<i/l (_gl Vj 2 ta 2 j Vj 21 ir^iLa 
d U j Ia-aJL I ff i n i H (j^- 1 J -1 ' - ^J ^^ * ' FJ-^ ^yaja\^Jt j-jtc (j-*J 'J t^ajul 



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LuijS jjS 6>,ujall uLuilj^JI AjjIj 

(jl J-i 4 1 ) « mi a! tjl-S 1J--J-1 ^j^ III tVijJs 4&a*J (J-* *^>-9 p-us] 4J3jjti. » iLoJU 

.(^-J^Lal! i_jbSL!! (jii^sLik ^Ir ^^Lill 4_jL"iSLJI j iVi .SJijjJa ^Ir j^i-l i— iLi£ 

S-sLUal p ' j 51x1 1 ^1 j aj aj Lo LJLc 4ijjJaJ! oj^j Sjj mi'U t_4jSLI! (jl Lo 

jj_a pj_l (_gl (j_a Likj-Lvj isLi-aLiJl (jjjjL^flJ! p'j-il (j-a pj-i i_gl L^JLut! ^1 
iJiiLo^lj ijLkjI/^Ij iiiuJL>J!j njlj_2J! (j-o) 4_oL$JI ^j a j i a * 1 1 jjj^itiJI plj-il 

i_3jj^»J oJL£ Sjjj^s mjL , U ,,MI jf JSLAII JU-&I iiil j J£ (^Ic- -0 • (j 5 -" 

l_g-L£ tfjutj .(j.ijltl (j-a cLji Lo J-3j-! J^l u^- L^la (_£j j|j_UaJ I jl CjLsJSLII 
. L$-j3 ajLljij jl L^j (JjJb (jl tiuJ->J! jj-iSjegJI pJLc (jSLxj V (_^i3!jjj «ljj| 
» • La " mJj^Ij (j-A Lo-S » j La " d U j La -» a 3«lj^9 cAJ JjLa (jy-^ lilLlAj 
a\^Jt> ty\£- (j I JJ-ui (j- i^Jj jj^}- 1 7t_iL_u (^u (jjj-a-JLi 4J (Jj-4-i (j I d)^- 4 - 1 ' d ^~" rt 
(^l^mi «Lt^ Ol-r 1 <i JL9 Lo»u i u ^LjJ_i (J_*5J»_) jj>. I 7t_iL_uj t Ja-iIaJeJ j-j^c (j-a 
x_a 4 «L_j^>. Lu_u Jjjslj^j Cj Lt^tHJ-a J jLli (j-° ' ^^ Laj (^jJillj (jjJUj ^ ^ P. -^ I, I 

I J_$J d j u ' *""^" i_Lajljj>. «LLaj>> * uL>. (—11 4 L^-Lo (Ji (2>^ (J ' ga a * j ?c_u3lj TJ^" 

jl < niVl 7t-j!_$Jj oLijJSjjUlj 3_La)Vlj oLal 1.1 Uj »l g mVl Lg-j-Lc J I jtl 
(0-^j!jLcj j«jtJljLa£.j jJLJI (_L*I (3^*-' O^- <iiJLsejj 4_jLjS «_a 4 ilj)M-i^3 1 jl! J 

. jJI 4(a^jbf (j-a ft(j-ij 
(jJLc «IjjIs 2! i-La-u-i ■■" ^yfl (2yLj 1 iiij-aJI (j^-Jj*" "iU A ^' "j lillji Lij'j J^J 

(j-ikj 44jiiVLS_a jl i_4^iS J*C 1*1 (j-Lc oLij/ljj (j^ 1 *^ Ij^sLa Lxj (^j^VI LuIjj 

4j^e_i (j_° j*l-3-3^(lj 7r j 1 <> jUJ L> Sjjjl>J! jLCa*2(!j >;IjV!j o^LLLtllLi 4i^L>. 

. jj>.I 32a (jjs jLCa*2(l 7t jn lSj tijVjl 1 ."ill SjLilj jLCa*2(! (jiaj^joj 

iuiijjLiri CjLjIjjJI -3 
c^JL^ iJ -^\ 3_lUsLI.! pi i<ij*^I <ji-ij (_yfl 3^-Jkc 3j<i itil iijLij/ljjJI ojut Jil 

^JJ " Jia-aj p3 4 Lc jj-^J Cr^ ^ La-qIL>JL 1 (j-« *_$Hjfc_« jl p-a*2/1 ^j-* *^l ■ J^'^ 
tcjjLj dllj J <i i"i_ij .sLutljJ! SjHil! (jJI dJJju Jjj^^JIj 4_JLlI! jj -^»tt j_i£. 
vIjL9^L«J!j 4-l«j^ uuJIj 2j \l .^."aVIj cLmil ji nil < Laillj CjI JL>.*2(lj ■ "* * ^ ^ ' -~* ~*~ utJI 
Jl^J .SjuutgJI jl 3jjL>J,l p-aVI (j-o Ltj-JLl La iLal J^JJ-J OuLS (jjJI 4jJjjJI 
al j 1 ..VI j JL>J,I IJLA (_y^ (_>^ 3 i-' , -" Cr'i (j^J ' "\j-aJI tj-lijt" 1 nt, I 4K I JLA (L^J 
jC-^HSj-j>. 4_toi1jJj 4$^ MiLt-aj 4_4i_t£Jj «Luj-3 «L5j-»_a * )j-«-I1 4^jjlI d a ma ^—b 



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Luujj (^9 6^ujall uLuilj^JI (Cljil 

. ( _ ;r Lj La Ltjij^oi (jyjJI "AjiejjLiJI jo^jLj/IjJ Jj-jI (j-°J 

.ujjjlII TtjjLj 3j^3^L>. -.(jtjijtj Lbtj J.J. Sedillot jjjji .1 <_l!L>. tjL>- i_<j£ - 1 

. aL*J! t_ijj(JI TtjjLj : (jljjjtj 4-ujjJ! ^jl\ jILlcj (JjLc «L«j>.jj jJ9j 
. 1 836 4 '1 ( ,1 1 Ljijj^ (ji ujjjlJI 7"jj^ '• j-yj '— i-I lj ~2 

.4_lL*L>J! ( _ ;r 3 t_!jj>JI Tt-jjLj : 4-l>.j_oj.S i—iJlj -3 

(jl^-LnJU <3_UJ-*j1 ^—Jl 4_<5J>.jJj 1884 (JJJJJU it *V*Jl S >\ 1 Leaj> '.(j^J^J L_dJlj "4 

d i i .1 i^ljja-l 4j^1j ^^ it_jjj(JI Tcjjlj SjjiLi • (J La ■ "J ;j ' 0^°j' L - ^li "^ 

. 1847 
. 1898 (j-ajjLi ifiLLsLjj-c edji_a j-<jj>. VI /^-t-i Tt^jLj \{j\±A^x>ji5 <^-u£j -6 
. 1923 3 f ( .i (J-ujjLj itiljjmi i^g ijr 5 aI miTI : i l^jI t__j£j -7 
( j_ a _jjl_i ( . A ^" 1 1 t * , „j\ ^ r*L?e_>Jl SLo* *. (jlj-utj Sj-u_u 4-uj-jj j-tHuj -8 

, 1902 5_L_u 
.1901 dim itiuJLjsJI jt^*\\ ^h ^IjUu tc-jjLj :jlj-fc ^tj -9 

. 1913 j 1912 

TtlLaJI ^—II ^—jjjlJI """'^ II (j-a 4_uj-*JI j < a q '.^jl^-Ltj Lbtj C ui 3 j-*lujj - 1 I 

. 1932 4 'i at (jjijjLi i^^LujiJI 
5_lj=jjLl!I 2_.'alji .Utl -.jjljjjtj Lbej H. Dussaud jj^/jj l£j-' j * j uuj - 1 2 

. 1932 d f < u t4-jj ifl i n' 

. 1 955 4_Lu/ ia^Ljj/ VI j_Lta aLSJ! ^^ i_jjjlJ! ".^Ij-ulj LjLo 1 1 ^-j I j •"■ ij - 1 3 
(^ 5-JI .i uJI 4jjjjj/ : (jIjjjlj Sjs-jijJal CI. Cahen (j-aL^ ji^K j uuj -14 

. 1940 Sir,, .4jjjIi^1I ■ -J^^tl j.^ 
^--3 i 4_J_O^Liji 2 I Lul I ( u) TCJjLj : t jl^_ULJ LljtJ ^JLui '^Jj i~/j fl^J J Ul tj -15 

. 1953 j 1950 (j " i 1 .1 (>u 1(_>ujjLi ^ ioIjJjcjs Sj>Lj 

dim ^jjijjLi ij-iIoL»jl ^jj-djl ^—3 d ol 1 nil Lul 1 ( nt *. 4_]Lo Ltiajt j-tiujj - I 6 

. 1932 



145 



UuijS \jS 6^uj&ll uLuilj^JI AjjIj 

. 1938 4_L^ 

Ji-g-C (_y^ l_Ljl J I II 2 (j-t-ul J I il II TCJjLlII '. (jljjjLJ 4jj/IjJ I I eaj I J '""J -18 

. 1950 3_L^ .Sjj^LiJ! 
. 1942 d i < u ic_tL>. '.^jl^-uLj «L>.j)j-Lil 4_o^l_3^_i_o tjL>> c_ulSj -19 
.1951 3 ii ii i<jjIjj>. ^yfl iQ^-uljUuJ! -.^IjJjlj libcj Canard j U^ j uijj -20 

Jju i<_!jj(JIj 4_LiJj_u : 4J!j^£. Vasiliev ' fljjL-ml al LiLii? I Ltajf j uijj -21 

(2j^j . u J J ' a " "* " ! U'J '*,' SjvjijJoI R. Brunschvig » j a uuj^j ^^J "^2 

. 1947 j 1940 (PJui. 

-(j-jl j mzl (j-oJ! : l jlj_L*-i Sjs-jijlal H. Terrasse u-u!j-j i_£j-'- a ^-^J "23 

. 1932 d i i n -j ■"■<* tiiJLijI ^jj-ill ^—J! <^J^_t-ai (j-* ^-jjJtll 
4_La}L<-u^l SjLjjlI! ^ -.^Ij-utj LLj^G. Marcais dji.ijLa rj^>- j uijj -24 

. 1954 3-L^ icjjJlI! ^ 

. 1967 S-Lj-u ^oljJbca 
.Sji.iLjJI SjljjJI (j'j-"^ 1 2-<j/!jJ D. Sourdel Jjjjjjj/ lLLlLloj.} V-^J "26 
J. Sourdel Thomine (ji-o^j-JjJijjjj/ <j-tJL>. «_o (jjUlIL LUsjI j uuj -27 

. 1969 3_L^ ^^^^KJ! ^OLOM Sjli^ '-ol^ W^ 
^1 1 924 3 ini (jjs j^» jj Laj : o'j-" 1 ^ Li^ Colombe c-i^Jj^ V-^J "28 

. 1 95 1 a_L^ oj-^3 1 1 950 3-L^ 
(j_o (_jj_i£L!! (_jj_SJ!j (^jjlJI (jj "' ' I '-o'j-" 1 ^ £ ^>-jj-^l I '^"'1 ^^3 "29 

. 1 972 3_L^ (j^jjLi ^ LtjJ^ij t 1 96 1 S_L<^ ^1 1 9453-L^ 

»5LjijI (jr^ (j i Mij-aJI jjfl o->Jl p^Ual ( _ ;r 3 Q^j i nij-aJl Q3JJ *~ mil J^>- 
^j-o dJJj-S fO-^J tl)^ i-4-iJ ijja-t-^ 2lj ^ 5 all ujS ^j-a ^JlC 4_*jj>.j3j 4 ( tiLm 

inn 



4 < ui U 3Jl_lL«JI aJJb ifljjLA ^1 -i j I Ls j j -i j"«l ^Lbl jJjj^iS pLji! a^jjLc 
5jj-a-t-t, 1 ^jl S. i ii (j-° (J* ' " U J' J ■ a 4_i1j»Jlj 4Sj^t_a 3^9 u'3^ C^ c ^i- > " 
«LSj-j^_a S^Js (J-J-3 jj-* C^jLS I o S t t j^ J ? ' ''* *' L)J-*^' l^-A J-^'j' Ly^ UL9 ul £* i 

<j-al£LJ! j-<-oJI r&^a 5JjUtA ^1 5LaLU3^Li ijjUlI! <j-°>" u^ ji)^' iSjIj^-V 

'.(JLtk-LI 1 JJt iJ& Q^)± < " ] J-g1' (Jt&t^ - *^ ' " •' ^^^ t-* JLH' tlh* 4_Ljj>. tfjufcj 
(^ ^^^Li-u^M «_jj mi* II : (jlj_L«_i Lbsj du Courroy Ijjj-^ jj-i j uiJ - 1 

. 1948 i^^ojjLi lijjLjjiJIj 3j;,,itl i_ufc!j_U 

. 1888 d i i ii i43lJL?e_»_aj Jl^se_o Tij-t-o *. (jl^-uu LtJt_l ^Jjj^i J J c_JxSj -2 

632 d i i ii (jjs <! ajl j^' a j ^ "^ ' "^ «Lfljj/^La : 4Jlj^. tbej Lc.jj v-^J "^ 

. 1878 4 ; in oj-iJj oM-uJ] 1358 41^ ^1 
tfj ui tj 'pTj 5 llj j^gje-a :(jlj_L«_i Lbe-i St-Hilaire j j I j" tl_^/ c-^j -4 

. 1 8655_L^ 

4 i i ii i(j_a_Jju ' ^ 1 I dJ i ■■ rt J A^Li_u2l j-UsL>. : (jl^-ULJ LtJtJ 4_u_lo_a c_ilx£j -5 

. 1910 
.1921 3 i i .1 ia^Ll^I :4Jlj^£. Ltaj LUajl '-'"^j -6 
.aIj^sJI 4i!l c^-u ^1 ;y-><JI : (jljijtj Lbsj Dinet 4jJjj V-^J "7 
^—5 Ju»J&ja '.^jl^JuLj Lljtj fC T ufcij-)l ^h 1 O' ^J' ' " "-^ ^jjljLUu i-Lgaj] c-tHSj -8 

. 4_) a_JJ I > j i n II 

(. i in-w 4jj/jl11I ujjjJI j? jL^jJI : (jljijtj Lbej Fagnan tjLuLa j uuj -9 

. I9083_L^ .jjIJ^JI Js <(^JUI 42AJI 
. 1909 5_L^ lCr a>L^VI fj-^l c^ "r'j>" : 6'>^ ^*J ' '\'' S-^J " l0 

(—3 i 4_j_o^Lj_u 2 1 4-d-ui-LdJI /j-JJ J^JLa : t jl^_uu LLtcj 4_i_u^, j-illijj -I I 

. 1923 d i i n 4JJ.UJJLJ 
sLlo^Lj/^M j^LLj/^I j \l .^.« : (jIj^jlj Lbsj SidersKi (jSLujJluj t^^j - 1 2 

. 1923 , ( j_o_jjl_i i^Lj_u2l j-u_uj ^jtj-oll ^—3 

iCjI Jlla-a A i mv ^^ ij»^M_<-uV! jj'Ciia : (jljjjtj tbej ^Sjjljli j_Juj - I 3 



115 



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. I926j 1921 ^ 'i ...^ 
ij^^Lj/^I f-j Mill ^ (jrlUI ALtaJLJl -.^IjJjlj Lbej Bruno _g-j_g^>-j j uUJ -14 

. 1913 5_L^, 
^1 JjlJ JlSj 193 1 i3_u3^Lj/^I jalilll -.(jljijLj LiLj^ <j-<_i_o^x-o ■ aJlj - 1 5 

. (j^l<ij>.jj (^yfl 4-ujjJI 

. 1923 (JjijjLj ( _ ;r 3 i4SLo jjJI /j->JI '■ (jlj-uu LiLjS I i eaj I j-""-iJ - 1 6 

ijjjijjLi (^^ i(4jJI_<j/jj J^a-jJI : j-o^ta) '.(jljjjtj LiLlS llLIjiS j_Juj -17 

. 1957 3_L^ 
. 1930 3_u-u ia^L-u^I :(jlj)i«j t^j H. Masse 4_u^Lo i^jlit i, ,~6j -18 
. 1952 d i < u i jL^^s_a 4_Ltii3 : ^jl^-uu Ljjtt-i % j mi^Li j-ujj^ -19 

. 1947 4 i i n i(jjjJL!l ^1 (Ji-JLa ".^IjJjlj Lbej I i eaJ I j uUJ -20 

(j *1_U_U^£) 4-LuUAjU ^j a <<•> i^jij-ill '.(jl^-ULJ 1j-jJLt-£5 LtJtJ lUJiIxS J-UJJJ -21 

. 1245 plji 
. 1970 5JLui iA^L-uVl -.^Ij-uu Sl^Ijj jj-^L^ J15K j-uijj -22 

4-LtJU ir"^L_>J1 a 2/ i : t jlj_L«_j ' fl j ' ^ **' ' I (j-^ 4-j_u1j_} jj^_j_Lu_uLo j-tHuj -24 

.4_l*_oL>. 4^.jj-Ut Jj-a^l ^ ^fJbj 1 1922 
' J ' ""***' /jhuSoj I (QJJcjuJ Jj-ual jj-£- «Li_uljJ ;«LJlj_t£. Llrt_j 1 lis ij j ■"■ ta -25 

.1954 ,2i= l(J _a>L^^I 
. L«jiIoc-aj Lyj a^L-u^I : t jlj_utj LIjcj L. Gardet 4jJjLc. ;_£_jJ j uuj -26 
2 j I j I t"II i_^SL!I <j-a I jjlc M. Rodinson qj . .. ojj *i j . ..'C a j uuj -27 

: Lajjjl (j-a 3_oL^JI 4JjL2llj 

. JUlica -I 

5-JI oi.iljJIj ^^L-uVI -i_i 
.a_u^£jUlj *}L_uVI -^>. 
:Aj31jJl»J1 ljLuIjjJI -S 

«t_LJ>.L(jl jj-° CjL_uIjJJ| jj-° p^5-IJ I I JLA (j^J I il IJ-flJl ^JOJ^»**l lull (JjLuJ fj 

i_aj ui£ II CuljLjol (jV dlli t 3 o K II (jia^J.1 (j-«ijiJI "J^T 11 .' iU^ljJtjJI 



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C-cjc-jLl (J^JjLuj joj*JL><J I JJj -(J^'j (J 1 *'Tj ^-"jl ciujL>J! j«JL«J!j 4_uJir»JI 
i_3j_C Lo (_£? i<t-J-3 l_<"^ (_£ JJI (^iejjLlII sLSjJi ^ ^IjJljjJI t_JjJ«J! iil>i 

(j£, IjlJ-^C. ' flj^J ' L^'j-*^- "tO-*^ J^^ ' *. • ^J-*- 4j_jLseja ( -5 -l^. 'jlj^J (S-^- 1 ! 

ja^il^jLi 4jj mi ill 4Jalj^.l jl 4Jjuaj 4JI JJuj 4ajJLS| jl 4JLi^.j ^ ^jj i uj ojL^JIj 
j^a^l ojuij^j .ja^jLjj'j (•^SljLcj jOjtj_ilaLj/lj jo^jLJLjJj ja^jLiJj ja^JlSLl/lj 
jj -^ » II (^ 3 U j U -L 1 1 jLjVI 3_L^>. (^Jl I ;f"-lj ' (^ J>I_cLluVI ,j-a JjV 
'.(JL>J,I I JLA ( _ ;r 3 jlijtl i M U « zjjt CjL^/IjJ) Jj-jI <j-°J <LaljaJL I 3_oJi2_lU 
tcjjLj 3-Aj t(j-l.j-3; '''ll ^^-^'J-^* Lz*\ (J^^-* *(j'3-' JU L-SL& 3-^J J-*-* 1 - 1 ~ ' 

. 1848 5 i in i^jjJI jJic LaljJLjJI /ak: ^ JjsLi 

j-i^ulII ( _ ;r 3 4_ujjlII 4-j^IjJL>JI i_<_iS ( _ ;r 3 SjJaj '.(jljjjij tbej dJLij) j_<Iujj -2 

. 1882 d i i n ijj-ujju ^—3 i_ka_u_uajl 
(J^-lsIjJL>JI :4JIjJ£. LLaj Darmont (jj-ojl-i f-o (JjIji-ULi j_uI/^L> j_<Iijj -3 

. 1957 dim ijjjiJjLl ^^ ,>Uj . ..jtl j ,^«.tl ^£ t_!jjJI 

^ja^LuiVI joJLkJJ 4j^ Mull 4_taljJL>JI ".(jljjjtj LIjcj (JjSLlo <LjjjjI j-Ju->j -4 
J_i^)VI (^ jjtj . 1 967 3 i i .1 i,_^ujjLi (^ i j>^Ll«1! j uic (_gjL>JI oj-UI ct^ 5 " 

(j-l-Jj »"' ' " U (jl 'J La-flJl I J_A aLLs. ^^ i JLjJ-Ju jLx_jLj JjioJI (j£Lx-ij 
(jlS La *1^_*_o i4_ujjtJl cLbLSiul ( ^'^^ ' *\"-- a 4_i_oljjJ 1^ *)**< ifrl JL9 (j^_u_uJj-iJl 

(jljb jiJaj . L^aljJL>JI jl tc-jjLiJI jl SjijitJI jl t_jj>Vl jf 4iil|_, L^ia jitly 

(jjJLsJJ j ui i I L> Ltj^o- I (j-iJI ' " ' I la j LaJJtl lLIIj jl LaajUl (^ylll CjLj/Ij jJI iJlA^J 
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La Revue del'EcoleNation-SjjJI 4-i^j Mill CjUU 4jJJojJI 4x^jjJ.I 4i^a-j 
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1810a 1885 

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3-jjlj h"u ill tiJLufc <j^J (S-Ij 'J^ '— '' -* (J-"^'^ Vj t ^'-*- Xj J-" 1 -*^' O"^ T^-^'j 
( _ ;r jj/L<j/jJ ^Lx-S ij^>.VIj jj-t->JI jj-<_> '"'I cUaJLlI Jj sLujjlII CjL-uIjJl!I ^j^ 
Ji LflJLLJc_a I J_jJlj>. L»jalj 4_iiaj JJJ-LI ftJsljJ! I JJt («-ajJ <Gj_iliLoj ojij^tj 

i«l<-ujij jJ pLjl^VI o^-*? ^ 3_<J3j_i]| t_jbVlj ^jjjjJI 3^ ^'f o^ n-aMji-VI 

jjus. oJljJLojj sbx. Jo. 2I ( -5 -l^. 4-iiiljJklj id jnUII j«jt jLL-ul t-jj (j-o SjlsVlj 
«_a 1 1 j j II jo_^JjJ^c j_j| (0-^_il J_Li ^^ A jiUtl JUtLtil ^^ SJGLj/I UJ "*" .' ' ^_' 
^j^ \ **i ) jQ^j 4_t-aL>- 3j_)JL>. CjlcI J_il lLLJ j JS /^Jl la -^^ ' gaj ^jl /^jl^. -n ^ < ^j ^*- 
jj j 0^ Jl£, Jlo£ I jjj . 3jj Ju_u L^jjj.} ^-3 -n ifcl *aa>.a Asr y~r i<t 4jgUT1 (Q-^3j J 1 "^ 

/j-3 4_LJj-JLjl CjLi_oljjJJ /_£-uL>Jl ^j n ( njJLI ^-j-oL-oJJ ^tHJJ^' ' (j^-lj »**' ' 'ill 

L^Jjl 4_i_Lj_a djolr (Jjljj/I (_ji^. Lt*l_b aL^I jl i4_oLc Lijjlj 4j^L>. LjiJj^ 
. \ Cr ijjil\ >=e-iJ!) :4jLjSLi d<i>ij i^JJI (^jiill (j^L^/Vl 

L^J (jL^ ^JlJI 4-al SLajj 1 1819 Sim ij_i_«JLl.l i-Jj <"unU I JL* ^^la Jl^j 
<_jU.j !jl\ 4j ^Jl (_g jjl (jjjSLlII dil j sLLySijj (j-'j^" ^-^rhLH Ur^ J-ir!^ J''-^' a 

<Uj-ua LfcjJiS tj^ cH"^ ^^JJ ^^9-* * ' ^^^ 4_u_o i4_uLJ >■ u 10I ^c3 i* )1j *"i t n 2(1 

^a i , U ^'a (j-Uj-u ii^ij Jlilj L^j (j 11 *-^ 3 ' *J Lp *— ^> c ' j oSj 'J .' , ^',' 1^1^' ^ij^ 
C^JjL^ 4_j-Ic 3 JUJla SLo* Jjlj i I 838 4_u_o lIoI n"i j j ■"■ ^j-a t jjj ujaJiq 3t_i_oLjj1 



200 



I^uujaJI l-jIjSjjiwUI pUfil (>0 

i_aj uJlj jl>J,Lij n_gjlj^lj ^ <iUII Jgl uiill o'^'t 1 3J^L>- ojl^j 3 i . mj^Lq^ 

(jL^j .3 j in'tj-aJI 3_j_4-iJ)L£^M (^ I j i a c (jLSLa t< jt> "'"' "'^ o'^^-i- 3 >i^- 
iPavet de Courteille ^jj^ JJ> '^W cr^- ^ *<IjL1j i^JLs-1 <j-a j_in->. t;r <j/L-uj jJ 

.0jL»i ^ J. 1 ' " i_)lj»"ii .iVl ^ i iiajj LJajj.! JL9j 

(jj '"'" ' "U oj^ L° I ''-*y oJ-A 3_aj_L>JU t;r <jiLj/jj 3JlSLo ^j^- Jjj L«_aj 

Jji) mi" i ii tl 1 J_A ^j-Soj LoJl_Lc i^jjjLLlI j * u<J » *-(jL9 (jH^* (_> u ^J'- u ^LlSj-^' 

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4jJLtuj *!jLj aI_i-2JI ^j^z. Ij-iLa ^li (j-o ojlus^Ij (ji-J (j-° ' "* '** a ioJ-»j 
(^jjj! (O-A jllo^W «Vj-&j isLujjlII cjLj/IjjJIj sLujjJI (jlji-La ^^ djgUtl 

(_gjj! (jl -^-^j La llj .c.1 U a iV (_p3jjLu ji 4jj/LCIjI L^lS CjJLjo (jl j-fC (j-o 

:JlfLtl Jjj^ (^ 
( _ ;r <j/Ljjj) (jLj/jLcj iSedillot (JjVIj t_!^/l jjJljjj/j Reinaud, jJjj : I . n'^a ^ 
Aojjjjjj Belin, (j!>Luj G. de Lagrange, ;yJtjx.V jj> 4jj^>>j!j^.j G. de Tassy, 

.tcJ! De Slane, ^^Lcujjij Bresnier, 
Vol lers,-jjJ^3j Fleischer, j_Juj^Laj Kosegarten, ( jJjLc.jj^ : LuUl ^j 

. jJI Flugel , Ji^laj 
.TtJ! Tomberg, pj-ujjjj Holmboe, «Lj^jIjj* : jjj uJI j^j 
.TtJI de Gayangos, (jj^JiJLlc. (_gj> : Lul xxm\ ^j 
4jjjj>J! cjL-u!jjJI jjju j_li ^1 jLLo^vtll! «Vjjk jjj^SJLi (^yjj/Lj/jj) ^jl jjaj 

OJutj i Luj_Sj LjjjI «L*jI Ji ^j^ 4^txis!jj 4iejj/!j d jilt* jj-ujj/I (j^ 'LftjLill 



201 



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: (l9) ( 1 957- 1 862) j~*$*i*-\§js*$i ^yj^-2 

L-ujjj) 4_i I i mi (^ (_,-2Jjj • 1862 3 i i H Amiens (jLj-al ljr £ <j-uj3j-«-ij) jJj 
Cjl_Cj_U3j_a 4_<j/IjJ) j^l (J-J-«-i 'Jdu L«-J^ i4j*»» Lx-a i3_j|jijJ! ( _ ;r 3 ^ j^j 2 3. 
L«-Jj— a <~*-r i ir-il (jylll j-)!j->JI (_,-3 4jjsLJsI J^M^i- ijoJajj! JLSj ./aJa-JLi J) I »*i" 

?J - ' " '■ ' ' ' " ] 03-* J) ^ **' ! 3 Q3 .! ' " l>-^' UL9-^> ***' ' "^ **-^ f'J^-J~ u ' ' ^~*~ 
3_Ljj_a ^^ t_i! jVI 3 j K <_>ujijJ> (j-3 iiiJ! Jul Lg-tlc 3jin'ij-aJI 3jjI <h*iiiVI 

jLoj/ 2 O^i • ' 909 4_Luu (_^-o- (t-jlj^ll sL-uj JLa) Jj-ooj (j q i h" Oul£j ijj!j^>J! 

i L&jjj-soj ^$3^ ^r^-j^ cr^ J-*^' >^' '^- Basset *Lu-uLj 4-uj i3jj/jjlLI lLIJj ^s 

ijjjijjLj ^1 (j^-LajX-l^ j-bl i n'q n_llj»*ii iiVI ^IjLus ^1 LuL^J 4jl3J) (_gjj! _J^3 
i4jjjjl!I (j-o ' f II * A » 1 1 iajj ^ Jj a '^!- :>, -^ 4jJ3j_<iJ! CjLii!! 4jj/jJla (JjjjjjJLi Jj^tlJIj 
t^ji i n oH «L_ujJ_l Ij-iJLa (J_4JljJ 4j-jlj^>Jl /jl\ ^£jj>*\ 3j-x i 1895 4_u_u 4 Jjlx. r«j 

1 jju L«-i3 1 Laj mi'i lj zi\ sGLLli? (^ LajjI L^J (jl£ cjljii .1 cj^Ij tiJLLa ^L^lj 
i^juLola plumt (j^jjLi ^1 1 1 898 3 im 1 jLcj t 3jj< uJI cj! j>L«J!j jlJL2i!I ^. 

. 4_jJ3j_,iJ! CjLiil! 4jj/jJLo 4_ijSLo (J^a] 

L' Ecole 3jjl ^<"n nVI 3jj/j jj.1 ^^ 3_ujjl!I j<ij1«3 o^jU- 5 ' ' 9053 i . » t ^l . ujj 

.3_jjUjLi<_uV! jjjiJjiJI 3_ajL>J 1889 3_Luu cinVi! J^a oul£ ^jll! coloniale 
Hartwig Der-pjj j tj-jJ> j-j^jj-A SLsj jjJ 1 1908 3 im nj-uj-aj-s-O (_H-c.j 
cjUill 3jj/jJla ^ 4 \ i uu (jl£ (_g jd! (_y3t i^aAJI 3_ujjJI (_y-<-jj£ ^ enbourg, 
1 1 7954-u.u 4jLiul j_Lo (^^x^SLII ! jla 'J^J^ (J-° <-^ *-*^'J ^-^S^ O^^ i4j^j_»iJ! 

1 ■ 1 1 rO i 1 1 I J_A u-£ j o~ 1 11I JLSj . pjjj_lj_jJ)J ijJjjJ i ( _ ;t jj/Lj/JJ) '-(j-a (JS JiJLJ 

SjjLudij/V! 3j_uj jj,l ^ 3jjjjlII (<ui«3 dJjj j^ (jl£j . 1 935 3_L_u ^Jl ^injjj-UI 

. 1912 3-Luo JJ^s 

!j_UsLa^s ii_i!j)V! ^^ oljjlojJ! ( _ 3 _l>. jjJa I sQjljLLo Jjlj 1923 4_Luu i(j1^.J 

, -.1 , ,,lj itl j j i a , , ,^.;^ Ji ,~,t 1927 4_cuu iJ21u! (<u .jjjijjLjj t_i!j)V! 4_Js ^^ 

L' Ecole des 3_JL«JI CjLj/IjjJ! 3jj/jJLo <j-a ,jjtaL>J! -i ...^tl ^^ iSj-a^L-u^l 

. 1868 3_Luu i.-iiiiiii JL3 oul^ (^l Hautes Etudes 
. Q^j'ni.iLa (_gjJj W. Marcais dji.ijLa j<ijJj jjjs ^l^ 1 1929 3 im n_djLJuj 



202 



I^uujaJI l-jIjSjjiwUI pUfil (JjO 

L' lnstitut d'Etudes-(3_La}L<j/VI CjLJj jJI jl^jla) (j.mi.i13 ^ L' Massignon, 

.(j^jjLi <L«-aL>. i_ iL>.j (^ Is lamiques 
(j-SLj («J 3JL».VI ojut (jl VI 1 19353 i i .1 J-c I S " II ^Ir (ji-^a^a-o Jj^'J 
^ISLII p lj-ill OJ3J 4J v^J>3j Ljjl Jj ijb. i_£U (_y*i«JI 4J3I uu sLpJl (^(t't 

(j^ J j Li I or Ltj^ J i 1 11 (^iJ! ojLjT liilj t;r Lc JjGj iJaLiiill I jut Sjj/jLJi, 

. 3 JuJJI oSJt, 
L' lnstitut de I . .. 'tj-a jl^jla (^ lj,^<- i3_l«1jlJI 4IiLSJi. i4jLitIJl *u jlsj 
tj-ul iiitlj >LiJ!j t_ibSLI!j »l nUtl ,j-a SLA^aXI 2 it- ;l| <; . '--._. j^a jjt j France, 

(JjjLlI! i_i-tie_o ( _ ;r 3 (2^ J ' nij-flJI (j-a j-lLi^l 
^ * 1 . ^" , ,.l » '.^jLiS (j-O-a^-a-l.} (J-a-£. ^I^H (j^- 4_u_uLa ^j-lA CjJ_>u J19j 

, i",q . II ^j^* -t - I 957 4-U-U i «i J J '"■ ^j rt J '" , '~ fj " '" |jB-4j[ij ^J I j< , flj ^ I \ 

(j< "ill J-3- 1 lS-^'J _9-*J <4jJl1 <_SjJ|_U (j-SVI J-aLIj J-&J i4jj£_a Si^c. ^^ 
l_ufclj-a i."iliii^-> (_^jJI (_j-A 4_iSLa2l 0JL& (_J^M_li jl (j 1 mi-Li (J^l C^JSj i^jLjJI 

G. Flaubert, j_u^La i-al'ii.i^. Jj-La t_jjJa iCorneille (^Jjj^ j^jj jj o mrjl 

j^Jalj^aV! Cj_jjLj 4-j3 £y&± ,_£ jJI (jLSUI (^Jl jj iSu (_£JJI ^jL^jGJI u-t-iaxllj 
i4jt_l£j «L3i_aj j!i ci^J O^ ' *~~ ' tl)' .! ^ * rt L)*^J ' & »^ CdLui (j_a J-JLJtjl 

(j_a 3jL>.lj (j n 1 nji, i«CL3j-«_aj cLufc1^_a (j_a 3j-o* ^1 ( lj!^_>J1 t yua J^ i"i**i i u aj 



. (23) « (22) j^LUI <yj a^uUJ! cjljjiJI 

ii_tj>.!jJLi JLjJ mi II 4JL«-iLS :3jU^3 <UJSg Ljlj-a-i ^«-J-*JJ (jl-j-aj-a-O (jli 
i.* 1 ! t j I Li 4-«Jjj (djitjJI 'Lls. =L>.j_aj i(<iji»jj| ^i d a I , ^"|j iSjjIjil tl~*u'aj 
^_»1/LlLI (jl-^ ' ^_ 4lajjL^j ip^M-la^U 4jj/Lu>JIj iJjulII ( _ ;r a 4j^Jj t(_j nUII 
^^ ^ ^ r J j i> JLj_a^LlLi A ? Ujj 1 LgSlL 11 j (jl 4J (jyi-J-y (jH-II (jyj-^-" ^gJ'jll 
( _ ;r a K*C mm a dJJjS (j1_Laj^jJ O^i »r*AJj 4-1 S-^? 4jJaL^uj ijlul£j i(«^JLa^. I 

„ * i a ) (jiSj i I J^ * < I j , ^. 1 1 cL>.j cU c^jIu (-^>* 4j^tj CjLuJj>- (j_a «Lujj>. (JS 

(_gJUjj i <Ol i '—Ij""* I j J Jj3 i4jVJLuiJ (_ ;r 3 (j I La * j («u ja^jljlj (jjjji. VI tiujLv 2 
(J a S j I i lal alii (j_a 4_L^2j Jut^, uLo^l l_3^ojI (. i"i"^-i (j^-i (Q-J 9-Aj . gojN mi 

4Jl_t^a (_5 (J JL>J1 * )L) SjLulJI i>J-^J (jl»jt i(( (-jJ T^-^'J >^ l^-^» * 4j>.1j-t-£U 

4_ll LUajl i>ulj-a (j»a (jl^J . 4J (_pajju (*J-II jl 4 jlr (_p3j-ftj C^ (J-ll i nil (j-a 
Lajl J J l ea flj (jl^ 4J2 i La^laj. I J ^L^-ll i. i« ir^il (j-a i.'it jtl (ji rl"i"n nVI Jju 



90S 



UuijS \^s 6^uj&ll uLuilj^JI AjjIj 

jj-« jL>- ' 1 j rt J p 1 1 tl CjL>.j_} «U Cilr I j rt LoLc UU_ujlj 1 * 1 <■> I 9IL0 (jlia-1 

. Cm i^ij di m j ■"■ 

d < n 1 iij I 1 aJ) c IjLx-o t_!jjjJ! jL>J! i_ij»"ii 11 U I *X$1 till J (_p <3-i>- JJSj 

4JI nc i 4_<ulJ3 d jlr LJjG , I . .^-^j , 1 <i nljj 1 Ijjj-^- (j "1*^ <b>.njj (jl£ JJSj 
^ 4J djj iSu (^ll! les Melanges 3_l4jj£Jl!I CjLcjJI! ^ djj £u ^pJI 3-bjIaJI 
L^ji^l^lj L$j a_£s&UI 2UjU]| idJj^j 1 I945j 1935 J^IlmCj^ \-aayt\2l\ 
(_gj_La 5JL2_o j->-\ (ji I^TimIj J. Sourdel-Thomine, (j-ua^j-jjijj 1 .. <>uL>. 

«_o (jjLulJLi Recit en dialecte tlemcenien: <Li_Jl mol'tl 4ja^iILi SjISLs. -I 

. 1904 3 (in Zenagui ^^Lij jjj-^' JL ^- 
1913 2 in. aj uu Manuel d' arabe marocain: 4_uiu^ljJ.I SjjjjJI j Lalae a -2 
4_<j/!jj (^ *j_j_l^ <Luj-aI 4J C-ulSLa L. Mercier, 4 j j i.M-a (_g^J «_o jjjLulJLi 

Les Ceremonies du mariage chez les jj!j^>JI Jjtl jj^. rljj-J! (<uj/!j-o -3 
iojlJL2jj Tr'jj-" iJ^b- ^-i^ o^J- 5 ^J ' ' 900 3 ii 11 j 1V1 indigenes de L'Algerie: 



20^1 



i^uujaJI i_i|jj£uuUI pile I |>o 

"^ * j la * i ■■ aj t^jl i ii o 1" -(-j-A «Ljj_i1jj>. JjIaLLa (_£ 4_jj?t^_La 4_*_u1jJ> 43l_}Lcj 

^jSs a 1 1 iiL-LLI aj-tb (_p-a ^^ 4_«_uJk! cj!jL«JLi cjLJjLai! (_>^*j *-a i JjLjlIIj 
'.(JjJL i4jj/!jjJ! ijjut 3_ajJLa ^^ ii_jjS jlsj .^jj^i-VI sLujjJI (jIjlLJ! (_>^*j 

La La^_l 4_l a I j AJ I c_^e_] m£Jui w > ^.^".tl ^^3 4_al_£j_u! J-^ J-SJtJl 1 JLA (j_u_jj» 

(j-O ^UQill (jr-<IV" I II I (jl LcSLa-4 7T J I r^lj j)l I jO^J I J Lc J l_!jJLU J-& I (J^*- ' ij,^ 5 " 

i4_lj_jJl1! CjljLuJ! I i*i i nljj) J!>L>. (j-a h—Sjjlj (jl LuSLojj i4jJLjj>.I 4-<-uIjJ) 

obUJIj ia^LvuV! (j^s Sjh~iiiU djbUJIj it_jjJiI! ^ 3-aUJI 4jj uuJI oLUJI 

CjLLc JUij (j-J-I! ' f 1 I ~ j i3_al£ ((j-tj-al i nil) (jK i nil ^1 Laa^c ( _ ;r «-uj eH - " 

(24) g . " - ' . 

i3jj>.Lj/J 4JLaj) 4-«j>.jj I j i ~^j"' J^Sj '• ("tLJj 4LJ 4la) ^j^ ■ ^°> *L«j>.^3 -4 
L*j_«ij JLSj id j n i"ill ^j^ LaJill OJL& Jjj^sl j^c 4-Lic CjLLLu I-^jJI L-SLualj 

. 191 I 3-Luu 
ju VI ^j'—'> w ta c I a idjisjjLlII CjL-uljjJI (jljLjLO dl! ji <j1-jjs^x-ij) lP*AJ 
i(4JalJ^c. tiJ^Lo jj>.IjI j_«j>. ^1 ( _ ;r Li tcjjLj) :i_iLjSL! 4_l«j>-jj U>Ijl O^J id *i^ 
:4_Lx-i (^liiJI (jlij . 1898 dim L&j i"i t Jl9j i((jjjii- (j-il tcjju) j^c ^LiL 
La Syrie a I'epoque ujjjlJI (j-uoJJAI u uuej dJLJLsJ.1 J^c (^ a! uJI Ji^Li) 
jajJiJuJI 4jj/Ij jJL 4-ia JjLu jlsj ides Mamelouks d'apres les auteurs arabes 
(j^jj-a :3jj|jVIj 3-u^Linll (j^Lo-LJI jjjj aLSJI ^ dLJUIl 4_> *\1 ^JJI 
J!>^-lj lo i_Lj>JLi <aJa}Lc.j hj K mil ^^LulII 2_<LlL»JL (jlLI.,,11 4^>Lc 

joJLkJI) • j j a tiJLUI t;r itjjLL)l 0j-2i Lalj ^y a laj I Ij 4jjLVI • aSlla^ll 
le monde musulman et (3_i_i_JL^aJI t_i^j_>JI (_,-i^- uj J ^'jj.'^j (.^-o^Luu^l 
aJ-& ^ (JjLj ji^j 1 1923 3 in. aj uu (_gJJ! ibyzantins jusqu' aux Croisades 
4jjjJL 5u>.jL>JI 4jLs}Lc I jj^slj (^js^LcuVI jjjLJI (j^s 03S* ^j' S^uljjJI 

CjJL>uj . sLjJa_i j_uJ I 5JjjJI '.(_gi i^^jJlII (Jl n Mitlj Jl n Mill ^^ 4J 3jjL>J,I 
3_j_a^L<j/'^l Sj^.jJlj i3jl itLjJI (^ 4_uj^!I ujjjlII SjjJj>- :,^c ^IjjJI (jlr 
4_La^Luu2l 3JjjJI (^c iijijo (tu .(j i"ia.i ( _ ;r a 4j^o2l 3-3^M_><JI < J la ~ J 1 1 j/ a 
tcLu^L 1 nil 3L_>J| (jjs JSLI 4.L.LeTLl J-«-«J! 1 JUt j-tx-l Ji^J . (_gjlj)VI Lg-a-iij UJ 
■~'l 3e-fl-i^3 I j_fl> 4jL^ ^ i^JJjJ Li^ .4jj!j)Vl SLp^l'j t 4jJ)l <^i~qVl SLpJIj 
4_jiejjLll| 4j_u!jjJt ^1 t_!jJ3l 4jjj/IjJ) (Jt^>- Ls-a i^^j-kJI t_)J)^(l (j^c SjLu«-« 



205 



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. Lajl>.j 4_u_j_>J!j 4-u-ulj i nil cjjIjjJ! 4jj/!jj ^1 Lg-La 2jjl , ^-.tl 

. /4-l2JI 4-iLjSLi a^Ijj/^I ( _ ;r 3 4jjLUar»J! joJill! <__)l_i dllji (j-L^aa^-O (Jj-^J 

(25) 

2 allse a i_«Jl_aj*j <-3j-t3 les institutions musulmanes, (S-La^Lj/^l joJiill) 
.(^jjlI! i_0 2l iiujL>JLi aJJt 4jjj/!jJ (j-a i_3jJa ( _ ;r 3 (JjLuj i p la * II aJJt (j-a 

dUL^L^) :t_iLo «l«j>.jILi cj^L>.jJ!j ^^IjJLsJ! i—o^l (jIjluj ^h < $ ■ ulj 
L^JLjj Sj_lj^ cjLaji»ILi LaLlc.1 jlsj 1927 2 i ... ^j ■ -» 1 1 (_gj_«jtll (jl .^.«VI 

(j-uj-i d ' *"* J^**' ' " rt 4_aJLa_a L^J c_*Ii£j i(jjjj>. VI * » >*Jl * iLjSjI (j_a CiL-ul Ti^Li 

ij mi t («-j . Ll2j^3| (J I a Hi (jl jij ( _ ;r 3 3_jj<C i mllj cLu-ulj i nil ' " ' I a-JaJuJ I I jj'a 

ciulSLa i j^Luiil j uic (^lil! (jj-ill (j-a (j^-l>- (jj! 4JL>.j) :4-«j>.jj i 1 953 *Lu-u 

• dru-i 'Mj-aJI *lj_ail 3j_u^ SjCiLa L#J 

tfj mi L 3_o|_& ^ a I J i "| ijo-ijiil! ^jjlI! j^jjjjl JLaJj! (JL*-a ^S i4j OulSj 

I j .uc JjjljLiJl *_a 4_aj>.jjjj Lu_a d luB (jjV (*!> * mmIj % * mil) * )LHS «LaJuLa 

Jal mi t II ,j_o i_tJL>JI I jut (2^ J ' "\>all 1 -^>«j (^ dilju ji^.1 i n'q 1 1947 3 i i .i 

(2j** J mi 'J-^-JI (JSL> *"" "^ <J-° '^ J>- ' d"^ 'iJt!-^*-" l£jLW \-*l "tU"* - ^ >&J& er^ 
4_aL»H3l (j_a J^*"' tl)^ Lq>J\a i^—jjjtJl (_oV1 jJiiJI (jl J_La a -»" a « pj 4J_l3 
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*sJLc iB. de Meynard jL1j_o jj 4_lj_ijLi ^L^ j^j-!! 5_lj»JI 4_iJ3j_<iJ! oLiil! 
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.(jjjn.oLa (£»J Ji^jlU J°> 4^l3j 3JLu*. <j^ ^Kj i 191 I 4_L^/ >9-ljI ^-IJ 1909 

epigraphie L "Lu^jlII j^s;t| V^ Ly l £i dtlUl ^ jJI Max Van Berchem, (<u-Ju>j 
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. 1928 Siu. ^ (j^ixUJI 

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t^ola cdLiA < 1914 -1913 ^^.aUJI *L«JI ^ ^j^jJ ^1 c^ya jLcj 
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■ (jl J ' "J I \jJt u& I j*'* tijJLa-"iii .1 (_ylll jLlVI (_>^a-*J L^lS w La c I j 

(jij-ii 1 1914 3 i i ii ^j^l 5jILjlII t_ij^>J! 7-Ljj cjjIj Lajj^. ico^ JjstlJIj 

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jj_a tjl i ii j t ^1 LUajj_a jjiij i«! Jj-JLj 1916 4 i i ii jj>.!jl ( _ ;r 3 i. m ir-ilj . (Jjl 
(j-^>- jc^-j^i-a LkuLUa d ^ J (j-^ L/^-J tjJLjJiJl d j -^ £j£. JjljL^ i 19 I 7 4_u_o 

2^jj j i-^-lt LlLkJ! a j i n jJA. L itcjjLiI! I jjt ^3 i,_jjtll!j .1918 sLLtu (j-a (J^IjI 

Sj_aLi!Li (j i ii ij-aJI J^j«U (^ (<uJLflJI 4JLj3jj I jj'a ( _ ;r 2IiIL3 i4jjjjj/ i^& dji nij-aJl 

j^yjJ! cjlio-Ll! ( _ ;r a G. Picot j^-j-j 7tj>^- 't-ijLj (_^ tiJjLi/j 'Ojj 'j' "L° i£jJ 

J g '"■ jj-° t^JLJJl (-3 Ij-jO^ t TJ-UJ (CJ . CjJ^J-JJ (—3 9-Aj ' t-LAJ 4_UJ (_]! i I 9 I 8 

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-1919 (jJLlJ! Cr jL>sL>JI aUJ! 4j!jli ^ 3_ujj<J! i<ij1«3 p 1 1 iuj 1Q5J Sj^Lsij 
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1(jj<jl1IIj 3_uj_L>JI 4jjjjj/ *i m5 ^ uiaIj I j*" JjLjjj lnscriptonum Arabicarum 
I j_i jJs c.L-L-La tjL£j 'J-^-3 (j-o L&> Ijlj j^ ^j-t^jjJ! ja-ui/jj oiLL-ul iji^j 

. 1922 5-u.u 3jjjJ,l tfjut 3x.LlLj 

(jj^LJ iSJj^Ja 3jLa j_La <L3^C ^gjj! j-ibj i 1926 3_L<_u i jlj^ dJJI! oLcJJ 
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.Creswell Jjjjj^ S^a^L-u^! JiF&\ C^ f^L^I <_^ Coi^itl S^li 

le (j-ijjlJ! i U -» j i I t ~>\_xl\ ^j.,j jAtl ijj£ JlD 4-LaC <J!ni- iC^-i-l3 «_Usjj 
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7t_jjLlI I jliuil 4~lojl£li iCJ-ua L' Ecole du Louvre j-Sjll! <L_uj j_o c^..sj 

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j ui i a it_)j_>J! i_Sjy_Li (j_o /o_c.jJ! (_,i^. i4_ujJL«JI a 'jj~^ (^ 0-i-i3 j n*ii nlj 
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. ufuU /^-l^. nL»jb^4J <Ldltim JjjLJ^Jl ^j^* 'J ' j ' ia rt /jJ^- 

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2 -i la ' " CjLcj_*j*_o (^ 1 19663 i in tj mi "i j .1' Encyclopedia Universalis 
Introduction a la (^jjl!! t_j^Vl ^1 Ji-jLa) -.(jljJjj ISLaL* Lib^ (j'C m't^JI) 
3±oLCII 4ijjtl.l (J^Lj/I (^ic (jJjjJ! t-jjVl 3_,j,ljj cua JjLu Literature arabe 
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1961 a i ( ,i j i"i tj .(jLjVIj (j-oJ! 4_LjJljs Sj_aLiI!) ".(jlj-utj IjJL*^ iSjlxjJJ 

4_u£. 4_Ul /j L ^> )> JUi^t_a (j_« i*M-"2l d ^ u^l :^j|flji£, Cl*r»o ^j -^j * ^ * cLc^_*5J?e_a 

. la Grandeur de I'lslam de Mahomet a Francois Ier ( Jj^/I Ijj^Jlji ^1 «a!uij 

4JL*_o (Jli-ol (j-o KLalgjJU 4-i^lj i"i"ii nzlj 4-ulj»"ii nVl CjLjjj jJlj Cj^L>J,I (^^ 
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d 1 u qL>JI j— Al_Li jL<i^ (j^. i 1971 4 i ni (j_a ^jl m n j J ■"■ ^j-a (jj^ uuljI ^—5 
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djLj/ljjJJ IjjJ-o t JLL-ul i I9353_u-u (^JJ 1929 3JLm (j-« ij_ui^Li J-«x.j 
L ' Institut des Hautes Etudes Marocaines <LJ L«J I 4-ujJLl I Cj L-u I j jJ I Jl^jla (^ 
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. 1950 4_uj/ ^1 d U i"i_i Jlij i4jLJoj! J_La oVjjj (j-o (jji^L>. (jl£La 

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Ij-i-ujh Ji ui-U *UJ3j_<SJ! CjLiil! 4jj/jJ-a (j-a 1 1950 4_uj/ ij_ul/^M_l JjCllj 

. 1970 3-L<-u jjjo- (jJI ■ -1 i^alXI ljuk ^ (_,-Sjj 

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l^_j_\_o 4_u_ujLa r^-J^ 1942 d f ( n L-2i-L> JlJL$ ' ^ djUs&jq d j glr CjLLaLluj L^_lB 
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S-Lm^Trji^lj. 1968 S-uj^JI ■■•^'11 Ijut^ j^Lj/Ij i5_jJL«JI iZjLJjjJLI 

J i i"i_i (J-i^J i(j-uJjLl £Ll«-1^1SI ^^ 4_La^L<j/V! CjLj/ljjJI JL^Jtl ljjJ-« 1956 
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4 i 1 n t^i uig . 1929 d i 1 n J j * 1 1 I j_a jn n nG ^—3 laS^ILilol j^ ^_i_a^_4-ijij 

(Ti 3e 1 U w * Lsa ) I jSj-aiJ )«_)Ljj1 4_ujjul cLujj^jlXI jSj-a j-lJLa ' ljaLq i I 962 

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.3_Lal Mill 4cjjj/jIIj Grande Encyclopedie, 
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Elements de I'arabe-( ( _ ;r j=j^iAJ I 3_ujj>JI ^jLuo) . (jljiju LiL£> 1939 Sim (^ 
^ j uuj . 2 -» -» . ^ ^j 2--^"" 3-tjlj 2« jU 1 958 3 i i .1 (^ f Ja jiijj iclassique 
Exercices d'arabe-((j — ■^^11 3_ujj>JI (_;,!£. ,jjjL4j) : (jljitj LLct 1946 3 i . .. 
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4_u_u ^-jLUIj 4 I 967 4_u_u 0J-t-"J (Q-i J^9 (JJ^> I Cr^3 *. 4Hj_u J-t-^l (1)-°^ Jj m^T-J SLp. 

JjsjiJ! jj jj (jL i43Laj J-u^ ij_ui>Li (j-^jl jlsj . 1 973 41^ tiJiill j 1 1 970 
*-Li <d jjl^ (_5 jd! iCh.Pellat }Lu JjLi l^^j>II ^ . ..'ij-aJI i_jj<"imU ojju <j-a 
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Extraits des principaux (Jo-ujijJI j .^»»tl ^ ^ jm_Mj.il i_ ijjlII (ji_i^!jJL>JI 
(jj_oj!j 4_«-jJa jLcl j«j 1934 3 i in (^ igeographes arabes du Moyen Age 
ol\ jul"; *-2-> (_gJJ! jj* j j ui^Lij . 1957 2 i i.i Lst-SJLaj !-»-» .^^ Darmaun 
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i3_LjJlIIj 3Xa ^ S.us^Lji'^I 3^c jJI L^j ojji ^pJI j-jjVI Ja.ljJ.1 Linmj 

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. 1973 3_u-u L^ia 3i!L\!l 3..U1I djj_ij jLSa iLe Coran \ij~\j2l\) . (jljjjj 

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Histoire de la medecine arabe, 2eme ed, U.S.A . .II 1971, .p .526 .."LitS^tiJl (12) 

Op. cit.P . 366 . :J^\ (13) 

Op.cit.II.p. 34 1 -526. :J^\ (14) 

Averroes et averrolSME, 1 852, p . 200 : 4jL£ jJiil ( 1 5) 

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Op. cit ..p 201 

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Op. cit. p . 202 . 

Op. cit. p . 203 . 

Op. cit. p .204 : 

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106. 

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Pepin le Bref 

Larousse du XXe siece . -^'a ^-iU.^1,1 |j_AjJaJ| (42) 

Ibid. -^ -lU.^l l 1^^1(43) 

Ibid . :^ ^Jk^aX I ljufc jJiil (44) 

ecole des oCent cinquantenaire de 1. 1948 <4_l^jjJJ t f H"t ^> m^AJtj 4111 ^j^JlII c_jLi5 jiajl (45) 



255 



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Langues Orientales, Paris 
L orientalisme d'hier et d'aujourd'hui, in: Revue <A. Mirambel.t.l, 1964 p8 J^laI^xo 4-JLLo <_dJ a^^ 

del'E.L.O 

tL ^LL=JI ^J 4_u_oJ) «LuL^jVl-2LJIjjVl icj^i^L SU^ A oliUI <j-a Sj-^l (ji^. Jjlt-^ ,«_lJ (46) 

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-CjUlj 5>j-uI (j_9^ ^-KS^'j 
Mirambel)A(, L'Ecole des Langues Orientales de Paris et Les etudes, d'orientalisme, in :j k'.l (47) 

Revue de L'ensignement suerieur, 1957, n2.pl 16. 

Elisseeff (N.) Themes et motifs des Mille et Une Nuits, Beyrouth, 1949,p6: jjijl (I) 
. ) t Les sources orientales de Blochet (E) la Divine Comedie t Paris 1 90 1 , tP . 1 60 . : j laj I (2) 

Op.cit., p . 161 :^liil (3) 

Ibid . :> Ii:i (4) 

op.cit. pl60 :^JiJ I (5) 

op.cit. .p. 163 -164:^1(6) 

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,*L*:VI I Jl^j rjVli: j>uflj c.^ Zotenbeig(H), op., P.I .jJa^l (9) 

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Catalogue de la collection de. : 4_c j_4-j>J, I ^JL^J 4-<-Lua ^jJl ^yuj&Al <^Ljh 4_p*ITll3I jJaJl (I I) 

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Op. Cit. PHI : Ly ^ Jj^ 1898 4-Ll^ ( j_ u jjLj 4j_LLjJI SLpSUI j^J^a ^1 443- j_a 4JL_uj (j^aj (jji (12) 

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Carriere(A.)Notice historique sur L'Ecole Speciale des Langues Orientales. Vivantes, in:j Ia-j| ( 1 7) 

Melanges orientaux, Paris, 1883, P.XLV 

Meuvret (C), La Bibliotheque, in: 150e de l'E.L.0., Paris, 1948, p404 : > ^j! (18) 

Catalogue de taJJb j^±& 4x.j_cj>J. Ajulus i^JJI ^■■j ^li 4-ulaL l^/"^ ^,*tl 4_p.L^VI j taJl (19) 

collection de manuscrits orientaux arabes, persans et turcs, par Schefer da. p.lV-V 

op. cit., P. V .:jj^jI (20) 

.199 -198 /6 i*LAJI ,UU^ -^h< ; U (21) 

Blochet)E.(, Les sources orientales de la Divine Comedie, Paris 1901, p 1 57 j taJl (22) 

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(Dugat (G. ) <Histoire des orientalistes de 1' Europe, Paris, 1668, 1 <p XXVI :jJaJl (25) 

Carriere)A.) top.cit wpIII :jj^JI (26) 

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<-jj VI . .i g U bjjL 4jj>aJI iiUI <LJj.j £jjIj -I .^ji jt^'.U Dugat(G.) <op.cit, l,p. XV11 .jJail (3) 

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Annuaire du College de France, 1975, p.6 . :jJaJl (4) 
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op. cit . tp. 5 . tjiaJl (6) 
op. cit . ip,6 ■ ij laJl (7) 
op. cit . tp .8 .tjiaJl (8) 
op.cit.p.8 -15 ij^iJl (9) 
op.cit. p. 19 -21 . :jJ^I (10) 
Dugat(G.) .op.cit . J <pXVll -.j&A (I I) 

. 15 ^ 'WjjW ^rh 1 ^' 4-iU' 2uJj.i £Jjlj :4jL3S jJail (12) 
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: *j>- 1 j t3j U I 9 l£U-ujJ 3 Ll>- 4_u I j J (_3 *_u alllu (15) 

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. I 58 ^^ t 1955 , 5 vr—a tj^jlL-aJL! (_J >juI ,__4JjlJ! *_4_>J,I 

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.j^Vl 

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carriere (A) top. cit. , P.V -^j^a 

op.cit., p. XXIII ijJiil (43) 

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Deny (J.)p. XLIV. .op.cit Blachere (R) .op.cit., p.49. Dugat(G) op.cit., tl, p.XLIV.jJijI (47) 



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.29-23 ^ys t\ j" »3. >ja 4_jjj_*JI 

Meuvret) C. ) .op.cit . .P.395 ..ji^l (55) 

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Colin) G.S.) .op.cit., p . 107 . : j^i\ (61) 

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Carriere (A).op.cit . .PXXXIV-XXXIX : j^,\ (67) 

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op. cit. , p. XI . -.j&l (79) 

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Carriere (A), op.cit . .XLV111. Deny (J), op.cit, p . 10 :j^l (83) 

Colin) G.S.) .op.cit. ,p . I 1 1 .(84) 

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Masse)II. ) t Les etudes arabes ... : Cr ^ idJj J-LaaLxJ ^>iaJl (97) 

?cjjLj L^_i3^ La Revue africaine, Nos 356 -357 1933, . • ^ *"'j —'' 51jU a 511 « A J ,^VI ^'a ^ &j 



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Elisseeff)N.(, Themes et motifs des Mille et Une Nuits, Beyrouth, 1949, P 8 : jJ^il (2) 

op.cit. , p .9 :j^\ (3) 
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Congres d' Etudes arabes a Cordoue, in: Aiabica, t. X 1963, ( p . I I I . :i_dJj J^v >^"l ('9) 



2^15 



LuijS \jS 6>,ujall uLuilj^JI AjjIj 

:iiiljSj 1 1960 iim 5j.il ia]| 4*ij^J,I ^ J/S/l jA^il iojiix jjijl (120 
. 8. Paris, 1970, P. . Pellat)Ch. (Langue et literature arabes, 2eme ed 

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.407 -406 ^ .1923 .33 

p .2 : 1974 JUu, 4JLJI LdJC ,>. (jjUj) ^liil (j^tf jjm ^bjl (23) 

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Derenbourg (H) <op. cit . <p . 17 jJaJl (10) 
Derenbourg (H)top. cit, p. 22 ijJaJl (II) 

tijj jl>JI (_jjjlI| ySLdJI jj a-t^sl :< iQi t j_-a-ua t« VjjLj q^*j"^ '" ij^ J^L* -5 \J^ U3ej» • 4jGS >k-jl ( 12) 

.218 ,_^ ^jLauv <jr*^ jj-4-aiA j^j^jUU i^jlUgUtl ju£. 

,j; ji I U j U 1 1 jLLc 0_jJLj>JI ^jjJI ^-ill J>^>l :<_jL£ Q-4-^=> «_jIj£JI tilii ^ L^_uaJ jJaJl (13) 

. 22 1 -218 ,_^ * ^j L*^>- tf <^ _ij_«_»_« j^j^ jdJ 

Derenbourg (H. ) top. cit., p .23 . :jJaJl (14) 

op. cit. , p .34 jJaJl (15) 

Ibid. :jJa3l (16) 

: ( j r 2 ^ ■-■! ■-■ ^J J-lS 4_u^jlJI CjL-u1jjJ1 4JL>. i_d-Ltaj j laJl ( 17) 
.49- 47. paris, 1948,p . .O.L'arabe litteral, in 0: 150e de L'E.L< (.Blachere)R 

Carriere)A.(,op.cit,p.XXIII:jJflil (18) 

: \jbjjj~\ j^Lu^a <Lv>- (Va o JLuJI tfjui I LL^\sejuji\ ( 19) 

L' Maurice Gaudefroy-Demombynest arabe litteral.. . Blachere( Rt). Blachere(R-in: Journal asiatique, 

t.CCXXXXV, 1957, p.309- 311. Masse (H.),Mau (1957 -1862)229-225, t . 1957,in: Arabica, tlV* 

(1957- 1862) rice Gaudefroy-Demombynes 

■ IjrAi CjLjujI^I ,j-u^u>. (jjLC J-< C lJiJ J-Aj (20) 

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. 4-lloJ jJu I 4JdJ <j*-*_o 
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. 1821 ^ 1769 ^* h- t>u ,_>iLc. i^JJI ci i^jLj^j (J^jLLj 4j ^ < a 3 1 1 j (21) 



215 



UwLJjS \j3 6wujall CiLuljjJI £jjIj 

(-j-LjI oLlj*. t j_c (^A-j^oj-cjJ * illlS 4_u_uLa i a '^» ft JL3a . Q>^) J-4_»_<i <_)>5Jl /j-j-*-J1 4-J . t ' a S la (22) 

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Masse)H.) top. cit . <P.229 ..jJaJl ..((^j^j-iJl <JljJLl^}U ljie£» 

Ibid . :jJ^I (23) 
op.cit., p .226 . :jiaJl (24) 

. 1952 4_Lu Jl jJLu >_aL-ujl J\ '^J a J f-LuiaJI teJLi^s ,j_a <_p d - tii ■ (jljJjiJu 4_4j>->j JJJq (25) 
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Masse)H. ) ( op.cit . ( p .227 . : (JT 3 SLauxiil c*JQj jJaJl . Jl>.I_j 

t(^ 3j>jIjJI diLa^im jjji^. SJljJJI £>X& ^ j>j^ La jJ^f 4jL£ ^ LjjuTl^.1 (27) 

Elisseeff(N.) (Gaston Wiet (1887-1971) in: journal asiatique, t.CCL X, 1972, p. 1-9. 

d '. j q , ^ a ,\£ cL>J \_Ci3 (j^-J-! 2 t_$ J-31 p J-^-mJ.1 (J-uLij (*)Jl I iLlS (jlj_L«J! I J^J /r-*-*-J Q-Lt3 (jlS La_lJ (28) 

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. L^-Jj {jruJL»o*JI J^>-^ 

. L^Ajfcf t±A j il -^ * 4Lu>- (j-a SJuUI dJLA LLtZi-i-J (29) 

Cohen (D.), Regis Blachere (1900-1973), in: Journal asiatique, T.CCLX11-1. in: Arabica, 1974, < 
Julien)Ch. . 15 1975, <Elisseeff (N.) p. Vll-Xllp 1-10 .Regis Blachere( 1900- 1973) <t.XXll, 1976, p 

(Analecta de Regis Blachere, Damas 

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. jLiujg lid jJ! t_$J>9 3>j_t£. 9 tAailo ,^j jji^aJia i( Ju-s^VI « 

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. I 988 <Ll-u j^jjlaJ-j v£LdJ! jba <-1j 9 m_u j-LOUtil >S ajl jl J 

. 1245 fa-\,>-J <Lflj)jjLl,l Qy-jjuj^S) 4JLl^L-u (j^ tf^-MiJ (<u (35) 

.cllsc-JI IJlA jj-a 123 l^ I _4 :jiaJl (36) 

• CLlJC-JI IJlA jj-a 124 ,^^1 _a t^^iaJl (37) 

Analecta de Regis Blachere .Damas, 1975,p.lX ..j^iJl (38) 

op. cit., p. XII :j&i\ (39) 

(jl5 ( _ 7 I]| Curriculum vitae 4jL3JI^ 4JLa-cl^ lIt^tJ-^ ^Lp>. 4_4jvjj ^ SJulJI .jJla 3jLa LLlZu-uI (40) 



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Titres et travaux d' Andre Miquel, , p . 1-14 . :£)tjic 2La^pJI dJUj 

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. dj-dj^a 1 ^ JllLaf) ijjIjJLu 1 1934 <*'■■-. ((jLlJj) I Ju-La ^y^ a^juiJj 

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